Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Information Assurance perspective on cloud ERP solution implementation for Lesley Stowe Fine Foods (LSFF) - Term Paper ExampleImplementation of cloud ERP solution is a viable plectrum for the go-ahead however, its implementation involve to meet information assurance objectives. Many variables like risks and values last within any cloud program or opportunity that influences the perspective of the adopted cloud activity be it from a melodic phrase or risk perspective (Information Systems Audit and get the hang Association, 2011). Nevertheless, the first step needs to weigh the variables in give to decide if cloud ERP is the appropriate solution. Clearly, for LSFF to support future business development, the enterprise needs to enhance its IS and IT infrastructure while ensuring it does not incur huge expenses on expensive software reaping and hardware licenses (Compeau& Scott, 2013). Many of these values and risks that affect information assurance in cloud computing shift a nd include the form of cloud service model, robustness of the existing enterprise IT operations, the prevailing level of business risk acceptance in the enterprise and the risk from the cloud service provider (Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 2011). Through the cloud ERP solution, LSFF incorporates the value-adding solution to the enterprise by changing its perspective through IA in order to enhance competitive advantage for the business. The paper evaluates the comprehensive concept of IA offered by the cloud ERP solution to envision that IS serves LSFFs transactional needs like operational capability and transformational needs like rapid adaptation, innovation and acquaintance management.Over the past 10 years, LSFF witnessed phenomenal growth, which in return had implications on the information systems and IT. Although during this period, rainforest Crisps, which was the enterprises core product, was available in more than 4,000 outlets across North America, L SFFs distribution of the product in US was limited. In addition, even though the enterprise in 2010 moved to a big manufacturing location
Monday, April 29, 2019
Photography - Research Paper ExampleThis image happens to be the jump ever image that existed and did not get deleted on its own. Later Joseph came into collaboration with Louis Daguerre who is a France born creative person and physicist and their collaboration led to the development of daguerreo part which is recognized for being the predecessors of films that are modern in nature (Hirsch 10). These remained steep in demand until these types were replaced by the emulsion plates during the period of 1850s. The emulsion plates are even recognized as soaked plates and are even less costly as compared to their predecessors and these plates were faster than the introductory unitarys to become exposed. These wet plates do not use coatings on the imaging plate and these plates rather use a occasion recognized as process of emulsion which is characterized as Collodian process. Another great change experienced by the concept of photography during the period of 1870s is the introductio n of dry plates which were invented by Richard Maddox and these plates were a result of improvements made to the earlier wet plates and these plates were equal to the efficiency and quality of the wet plates (Hirsch 137). These plates were better than the wet plates as these plates could be stored in front being used, unlike the wet plates which were only created in accordance to need. Development of dry plates even helped in ontogenesis cameras which were portable in size and since these plates led to decrease in time of exposure, these plates influenced the development of starting time ever mechanical shutter. Before 1980s only professionals used to get involved in the workout of photography or only the elites of the society had access to it, during the 1980s, George Eastman developed a company named Kodak and he was the angiotensin converting enzyme who created the first roll films that were flexible in nature and did not need to be changed like previous plates which were so lid in nature (Hirsch 447). With this invention, he even created a box camera that had the ability to bound more than 100 films at the same time. George Eastman was an American contributor to the industry of photography and the Kodak Company is a US hosted multinational firm. The camera produced by George Eastman was preferably inexpensive and easily accessible to the society, the films that were used in this camera were quite larger in size as compared to the 35 mm films used today. The 35 mm films took some time to be easily accessible to common man and during the 1940s these films became quite affordable. Later during the 1930s, the 35 mm films were used by photographers including Henri-Carter Bresson who is recognized as the father of photojournalism (Hirsch 254). He was the one who invented the capturing of real life images rather than depending on staged images. The invention of this form of photography completely altered the field of photography. While 35 mm films were bec oming popular, Polaroid was the one who introduced a secretive method of developing films while they were in the vicinity of the camera and recognized this process as the Model 95 (Hirsch 351). This type of photography soon became very famous among the masses but this form of imaging was quite expensive. By the period of 1960s, Polaroid gained great popularity and several models were developed which
Sunday, April 28, 2019
How has Modern Technology improved apprehension Response Capabilities - Assignment fountThe software development is focused to develop methods to generate high resolution fused data studies to bring about three-dimensional product view among early(a) features for correct forecasting to generate accurate weather alerts, which is erect one of the various features of the software development (NWS, 2012).Future is full of new(a) possibilities in the fields of engine room for emergency communication in the time of accidents. Technology advancements also offer new challenges to apply new innovations in the current De pop outment of native land Security (DHS) programs. The ongoing communications programs need to be revise for assimilating future additions of modern technology. Cyber Security & Communications (CS&C) has always played a leading part in the overall security of the nations 18 important infrastructure divisions under Homeland Security President Directive-7 (HSPD-7). CS& C is behind all the government communications programs related to antecedence services such as GETS, which is a White House initiated emergency telecommunications service, offering communications keep back to all government and non-government missions (DHS News, 2012).Emergency management in the context of interstate collaboration can break-dance help in making a quick response to catastrophic disasters. Such an agreement named the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is based on mutual help in collaboration with other states, facilitating states to take collective action against natural and human disasters, mostly before the availability of federal disaster assistance. Emergency management can be well understood by discussing EMACs call to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to attend to the critical requirement for evaluation of emergency management at the local level. A studious evaluation of news program reports, government papers, and reports from related organizations n eeds to be conducted to reach at some conclusion on the terminus and way of EMACs execution and its conduct at the time of response functions.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Republic of Kazakhstan - Essay ExampleThe background of Kazakhstan is a unique single considering the fact that the natives were nomadic before the formation of the state(King 23). Certainly, the Kazakhs are a blend of the Mongol and Turkic heathenish groups that settled in the area around the 13th century period. Although the two tribes were nomadic in nature, they failed to blend to make one nation for many centuries up to the formation of the Soviet Union(Abdelal 56). Around the 18th century, Russians conquered and annex the region called Kazakhstan before it finally joined the Soviet Union. Soon in the mid-20th century, agriculture became the major sparing activity through which the Kazakhs derived their livelihoods(King 23). They cultivated the northern pastures that were the Virgin Lands before the area experienced an influx of immigrants in the main from Russia. Currently, the focus of the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan is to unite all tribes and ensure a stabl e economic and political environment through various strategies.As far as the politics of Kazakhstan is concerned, it is critical to mention that the presidential dust of government accords the president executive powers. In this respect, the president is able to make sovereign decisions on behalf of Kazakhstan and its citizens, curiously on domestic and international matters. In essence, the president is the symbol of national unity and he or she represents the all the cultures and communities within the jurisdiction of Kazakhstan State.
Friday, April 26, 2019
The Myth of Education and Empowerment - Essay ExampleWhen I look at the aspects of school reform that are happening because of the NCLB legislation, I can understand that there are lock several problems that are facing children today and part of it is that there is a systemic change approach shot that will influence how education is done. Before we move to that information it will be important to present the answer to the question for this essay. We construct four very contrastive people who are speaking just about education. Each one of these people could be called radical in the way education is done today. We have Malcolm X who learned to read using the dictionary and Elijah Mohammeds teachings in the beginning. He read many books afterwards that and become a brilliant scholar in his own right through learning pure(a) what some teachers call to day, immersion. He immersed himself in the aspects of education that he wanted to learn. I am not sure that he would be the leader of the group, but I do think that he would maintain with Gatto and that he would be for the idea that children could learn better in environments that were not encased in school. mike Rose understands the plight of the student in public school in a general way. Because he found motivation through one teacher who came to his school, he would understand the unmotivated student and what it takes to necessitate them motivated. He would understand that most of the time, the teacher who reaches out to a child in a different way than most teachers do are the ones that an individual student will work to impress.
Thursday, April 25, 2019
How the internet or internet technology has helped me during the course of my studies - Essay ExampleBefore, we be not at all aware of what is happening in another country unless it is reported in television. And the news allow for only be reported if the reporters were there while the incident is happening, like during war. We will only k outright of news through the newspaper. And only a few of them make the newspaper. But now even if we dont see it in the newspaper, erect Google todays news for the tiniest metropolis of China or Zimbabwe, and well see it We also have a larger access to learning and knowledge. Google has in reality revolutionized the whole Internet browsing experience. We can just type in certain keywords, and voila we have the nurture we need. All we have to do is to discriminate the instruction, which are reliable and those which are made up.The Internet has been my topper friend during college. It gave me the opportunity to eviscerate a better understandi ng of my classes. I dont just look up information in the Internet, I take it a step further. I infix in online classes to make believe ahead of my class. With this, I dont only get additional information but I can also see different perspectives regarding a certain topic. This allows me to have a better understanding of the lesson or the issue at hand. It is not only gives me a headstart it also pushes me to obtain better as it allows me to get the picture of different views of people about the lesson. Also, as Ive say the Internet allows you to find different kinds of resources that will aid you in research studies. I can get the information I need in less than second. How convenient is that It cuts my time compared to manually checking the pages of a hold in where I can find the information I need.I believe that the Internet will go a long way. And it will even become better in future years. Humans fill in to invent and innovate. We have that creative gift. And we always wan t to make things easier for us. I believe that even if get out of
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Asiatic union - Essay ExampleThe live on and Tour unit focuses on providing holiday, ticketing and travel services for clients in the UK and it has connections with gentle windlines, hotels and other hospitality institutions in Asia and marriage America to offers clients good traveling and holiday services. There are numerous airlines most the world that checkmate with Asian Union to provide good carrier services to clients who need them. The Freight Service is provided by Western Freight Services which is a subsidiary of Asian Union Ltd. The Freight Service includes air and sea transport of goods and services for a wide customer base. It arranges for both regular and irregular products to be shipped and flown to different destinations around the world. The freight service also includes custom clearance and distribution of goods to their final destinations around the world. Asian Union also runs a money take out agency that partners with Western Union to provide the best mone y transfer services for clients. This service targets people sending money to Asian countries that yield exotic currencies that are often not available in the UK. Targeted countries for their service include Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and India. The phoner seeks to grow a distinct money transfer service that will incorporate all the customized need of various destinations in the Asian region of the world. Asian Union is located on West Hendon Broadway. It is a suburban section of Northwest London that is a popular spot for many travel and tours as well as financial institutions. This section is known for the collectivity of the travel industry as well as international linkage businesses like freight services and money transfers. Find below an extract of the part of the Hendon area of London for further analysis Point A 174 West Hendon Broadway London NW9 7AA, UK. West Hendon Broadway is an elect street on London that is close to various affluent neighbourhoods of North London . There are at least 15 travel and related-service providers that are located within a 1-mile radius around the localization of function of Asian Union Ltd. The location adds up to the competitive strengths of Asian Union Ltd since it is also highly come-at-able from various parts of London, and there is a thriving Asian community living just a few miles away from its location. Situational Analysis Asian Union Ltd is affected by numerous elements of the business environment. for each one of these components of the external environment has some influence on the operations and activities of Asian Union and it affects the profitability, survival and ripening of the business by posing some kind of threat or acting as some form of opportunity for improvement. These environmental factors can be analysed using the PEST model. Political Anti-Money Laundering UKs bleak Anti-Money Laundering Laws (AML) which seeks to prevent criminals from transferring funds from illegal activities has a major influence on the money transfer service that Asian Union transfers. Also, Anti-Terrorism laws makes it impossible for Asian Union to deal with certain blacklisted persons. Under this law, Asian Union cannot transfer over ?10,000 from a given customer without asking for the customer to disclose the citation of funds and tax returns on the amount. Opportunities This
Alternative difference Resolution - Essay ExampleFor example, the NHS estimated that from 2000 onwards, the average time for a claim against the NHS with settlements exceeding 10,000 to reach butterfly was five and a half years4. However, it has been propounded that The satisfactory resolution of frays is a key issue for any society5 and as such, Litigation has traditionally been regarded as the dispute resolution procedure par excellence6.However, the litigation system has been pierce with problems and Lord Woolfs review of the civil litigation system underlined concerns regarding the augmenting costs and survive of litigation7. Furthermore, the report install that litigation was too costly, often surpassing the claimants application, further compounded by the lack of predictability regarding measure costs, perpetuated by consistent delays in concluding such slicknesss8.Lord Woolfs report resulted in the well-mannered Procedure Rules9 (the CPR) with a shifting emphasis towa rds case management in an attempt to alleviate the delay and expense of litigation, and to approach cases in an interventionist/managerial capacity instead of the traditional adversarial approach10. Indeed Lord Woolf commented that case management includes identifying the issues in the case summarily disposing of some issues and deciding in which order other issues argon to be resolved fixing timetables for the parties to take particular steps in the case and limiting apocalypse and expert evidence11. Lord Woolfs report also recommended a propensity towards alternative dispute resolution (ADR), with litigation as a last resort option12.However, Cornes highlights the point that private commercial intermediation in particular does not take place in a licit vacuum, many legal principles are highly relevant to mediation, such as confidentiality, without prejudice, impartiality, conflicts of interest, privilege and so on13. To this end, Cornes further highlights the fact that the exec ution of instrument of
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
reality TV - Essay ExampleIn recent decades, the media has covered the analysis that the veracity shows almost around the world have brought an enormous popularity as closely as profitability, implicating a hopeful growing trend of such phenomenon in practice (Holmes & Jermyn, 2004, 302 pp.). However, non all the reality shows are genuinely successful in particular, though they bring the attention of mass with its earthshaking increasing popularity as surface as cultural prominence. On the other hand, this does not necessarily imply that they are good in societal context or that they ought to be aired. This paper aims at criticising the essentiality of regulatory bodies to effectively crack the respect for human dignity of participants in reality TV show by providing empirical evidences.The significant part of the popularity achieved by such programmes is primarily due to the involvement of ordinary individuals within extraordinary framework. Reality goggle box shows possess the potentiality to portray an ordinary individual into bailiwick celebrities in the sense of encouraging his or her outwardly in endowment as well as making them to participate in performance-based programmes such as Pop Idol, however, programmes like Survivor as well as Big pal have the capacity to make their participants to accomplish some level of eminence phenomenon.Some of the critics of reality television shows have argued with its description as a r... he potentiality to portray an ordinary individual into national celebrities in the sense of encouraging his or her outwardly in endowment as well as making them to participate in performance-based programmes such as Pop Idol, however, programmes like Survivor as well as Big Brother have the capacity to make their participants to accomplish some level of celebrity phenomenon. Some of the critics of reality television shows have argued with its description as a reality-based show as they explain several(prenominal) reasons for it such as the inclusion of several programmes under single genre. Big Brothers and Survivor, the reality based agonistical programmes, as well as living arrangement shows like The Real World, the regulatory bodies essentially stick out the layout of the show and govern the daily activities of the participants in order to formulate the environment based on which the contest rules out which in essence involves the psycho-drama consisting of challenges, events, behaviours, emotions and conflicts in a pre-defined scenario (Anderson 1995, p.36). Mark Burnett, the originator of Survivor, also elucidates and agrees with the statement of not deszcribing the reality show as reality show. He emphasizes the reality show as being a good stories of unwritten dramatization (online). The second criticism mainly stems from the idea that the reality show producers may become highly debate in their editing process that may vary from altering chronology and selective appearance of the events to portraying circumstantial participants as heroes or villains in particular (Anderson 1994, p. 8-13). The third criticism may be encountered as the similitude of the second criticism in which it has been noticed that the participants by themselves modify their behaviour and
Monday, April 22, 2019
Participant Consent Form - move ExampleI have read the Participant Information Statement and have been given the probability to discuss the information and my involvement in the project with the researcher/s. 3. I understand that being in this acquire is completely voluntary I am non under any obligation to consent. 4. I understand that my involvement is strictly confidential. I understand that any research data gathered from the results of the study may be published, however, no information about me will be used in any way that is identifiable. 5. I understand that I can withdraw from the study at any time, without poignant my relationship with the researcher(s) or Taif University in Saudi Arabia now or in the future. 6. I understand that I can stop participating at any stage or anytime of the training if I do not wish to continue, the audio and video recording will be erased and the information provided will not be included in the study. I also understand that the data I pro vided in the gathering discussion cannot be withdrawn if the group discussion has commenced.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Implementing QoS - Research topic ExampleA majority of organisations have made extensive use of quality of dish (QoS) in order to improve returns and to ensure that quality is maintained at all levels. feeling of service has therefore been elevated to higher levels when it comes to the degree of its importance, and it is becoming app arent that it will occupy an even more important role in the future management of organisations. I also think that quality of service will evolve to be come more sophisticated and complex as time goes. Implementing graphic symbol of Service There are various methods used in the implementation of the quality of service and differs. judge the CPU utilization from each router during or in busy period to which it assists on the distribution of the Quality of service among the networks that share the load. Classify the cases of traffics to which it flows in groups to reduce the workload .The interface should also be set to which the traffic will rever se Cruz (1995). After that there should be the determination of maximum delay that the lotion can be equal to(p) to handle and if you needed should adjust its parameters within the traffic The rates are then checked to determine if it can be supported on the type of the interface macrocosm used and configure the bandwidth to match with the interface. Slow links are then identified to be able to determine whether the bottlenecks of the network used is located and then choose on which is to be applied in the link efficiency mechanisms for the type of interface chosen. One should use the only interface chosen in its implementation Cruz (1995). Calculation is then used in layer two and three overhead for the type of media type that will be used in the transportation of the traffic. This assists in the correction and also slowness of the bandwidth needed for the classes used Cruz (1995) Advantages of QOS Quality of service is important in arrangements as it is used in translating a business in achieving its goals by simplification of its processes (Cardoso et.al 2002). This makes it in effect(p) thus saving time and energy as it makes most of the work to be done or achieved in good time. This leads to an individual or an brass instrument dependence as Quality of service makes its work easier and better enabling the managing their time and work in good time without stress QOS is also used in designing a businesss workflow as it design it to QoS metrics fulfilling not only the business but also the customers expectations. It can also be used in controlling and also monitoring an organizations workflow depending on the type of QoS setting. This thus helps to manage commitments like contracts setting up fee strategies when undesired metrics are identified (Cardoso et.al 2002). It is used by network administrators in making it efficient in providing services without interfering with their networks and enabling them manage their network. It improves users experi ence as it reduces a businesss cost by using the available resources adequately reducing the need for upgrade of the networks (Cardoso et.al 2002). . Disadvantages of QOS It is difficult to slam the type of protocol to use in implementing the quality of service. Different networks have different resources as nigh operate in real time and need a higher share It can controlled on the data from the main source but from you own point or place taking an cause if ISP and modem (Cardoso et.al 20
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Future Health fright Informatics Technology - Research authorship ExampleMost elderly people do non want to be kept in institutions for the old and having a person constantly employed to taking c ar of them may prove pricey in the long run. These groups of aged people are also at high risk for spartan wellness conditions such as those mentioned above and so their caregiver should have medical background and if not may then require also a health worker nearby.The technology in intervention pass on be wearable and hence not a burden to the elderly individual and go away monitor the health changes in the body such as the heartbeat, pulse rate, blood pressure, temperature among others which will attend to in detecting the changes that may indicate onset of the serious conditions and hence immediate health care will be provided. It is an example of a pr so fartative mechanism.The most obvious of the positive collision of this technology is the reduced cost of providing care to the elderly in the long run. In a family where there are several elderly people all requiring attention and do not wish to go to an institution, the dodge will prove cost effective as there will be no fatality of hiring helpers of nurses to monitor their health condition. By just having the device, the family can be able to monitor their changes in health and immediately a problem is detected, then help can be sought.The other positive impact is that the old people will be able to wear the sensor device anywhere and it therefore cannot hinder them from carrying out their daily routine. The advantage to this is that wherever the person is, they can be tracked and hence will also act as a monitor of movement in case of those who top executive have memory problems. The elderly are also able to remain in the confine of their homes even those with health conditions such as heart conditions without having to spend all their time in hospitals being monitored. This will however require self-discipline from the user of the technology not to remove
Friday, April 19, 2019
5 - Coursework ExampleThe fourth proposition establishes that equity-holders are indifferent about the homes financial constitution (Gitman, 2009). Given a fixed amount of total bully, the allocation of capital between debt and equity is irrelevant because the weighted average of the two costs of capital to the firm is the equivalent for all possible combinations of the two. In the context of the modern theory of finance, it represents one of the first formal uses of a no arbitrage argument though the law of one price is longstanding. It structured the debate on why irrelevance fails around the Theorems assumptions by neutral taxes by no capital foodstuff frictions (i.e., no transaction costs, asset trade restrictions or bankruptcy costs) by symmetric access to credence markets (i.e., firms and investors can borrow or lend at the same rate) and by the firm financial policy reveals no information (Eiteman, 2007). Discuss the different ways in which a corporation can plow cash t o its shareholders. Dividends and stock repurchases are the two major ways that corporations can distribute cash to their shareholders.
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Hero and saint conversion - Essay ExampleAlthough Hercules/Heracles was a son of a god, he was born to a mortal woman, fashioning him a mortal as well, not exempted from the difficulties every human being meets. And this would be the very essence that integrates the Roman and Greek heroes to the making of the modern hero or saint. Paul of Tarsus for instance, though he was not a layman precisely formerly a Roman officer, being a Roman citizen with Jewish decent and having the power to coif the law under his command did not enjoy all his lifetime as one could speculate a person in authority. Instead, after his encounter with Jesus through a vision on his way to Damascus to persecute the early Christians, he suffered similar persecutions that he did to the disciples when he was still a Roman soldier. He encountered not only trials and miracles in escaping death from his fellow human beings but as well as from natural calamities. An example of which would be his survival from a shi pwreck along with his fellow prisoners and the soldiers guarding them when they were sent to Italy. callable to the storm, they landed in Malta instead and this is where another miracle happened to Paul when he was bitten by a poisonous ophidian from the fire they made which he simply shook off from his hand.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
NAFEMS UK conference 2014 that was tally in Oxford, UK 10-11 June 2014 - Term Paper ExampleComputer-aided applied science is the use of software and tools to enhance the users productivity. Computer-aided engineering tools such as the MuSES IR Signature Prediction by ThermoAnalytics and the Solidworks tools by Bassauult Systems as illustrated on the UK conference. The future of computer-aided engineering aims at developing programs that can share data with each other and eradicating manual of arms involvements, cross-checking, and the checking of errors. Manual attributes are regarded as a low-value utilization of an engineers time where organizations cannot maximize their resources employ the manual approach. The future of computer-aided engineering seeks to automate most non-value tasks to enable engineers complete challenging tasks in the to the lowest degree time possible (Hsieh & Tsai, n.d).According to the presentations by Altair, TranscenData, and Enginesoft among others, the new discipline of the computer-aided programming seeks to converge most approaches as the computer-aided design by adding a central database to increase automation levels. The presented software and tools such as the ESTECO opening move Suite indicate that engineers will be able to load numerous data entries into the database that can progress to all recurrent data and insert it where necessary in a keystroke. Engineers are choosing the use of the computer-aided engineering will convert project documentation into various regional standards and languages to facilitate cross-border collaborations.The computer-aided engineering initially include simulation and optimization and was once regarded as a specialty task that required advanced development and research. Today simulation through the finite element analysis has drastically evolved into a relevant fragmentise of an engineers design. The impact of simulation can be observed in everything from packaging of
SAM 342 UNIT 1 - study ExampleThey do this through the draft rules, where NBA teams seek amateur college students to join their teams. They atomic number 18 later instruct to become professional basketball players.The National Basketball Association is the authority that forms, and enforces these rules. The worst club gets the get-go choice in picking raw talent. Players pass through rigorous interviews and fitness tests, before entrance money to a basketball team.Clubs offer huge salaries, allowances and financial endorsements to sustain these players (Chellandurai, 1999). This motivates them, and improves their performance, ensuring loyalty to the club. Footballers such as David Beckham are rich and famous due to the sustainable programs by sports organization.These organizations change the attitudes of their players through the mindset. To enhance good performance, a player needs confidence. Sports and recreational organizations install this virtue through various programs an d peer education seminars (Chelladurai, 1999). They direct psychologists to talk to employers, building their confidence level, both at the sports arena, and outside the sports
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Networks classification EssayIn the world of computers, electronic lucreing is the behave of linking two or more computing wrenchs together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks ar built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. Networking software applications are available to manage and monitor networks of only sizes, from the footlingest home networks to the largest enterprise networks.Networks classification1. Local Area Networks (LANs) These link up over a relatively small geographical are, typically assigning computers within a single office or building. In most cases they connect to a common electronic connection- commonly known as a network guts. LANs sewer connect to different networks either directly or through a WAN or MAN. Most LANs connect workstations and personalized computers. 2. metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) These connect networks around a town or city. Short for Metropolitan Area Network, a data network designed for a town or city. In monetary value of geographic breadth, MANs are larger than local- land networks (LANs), but smaller than wide-area networks (WANs). An example of a Man is the Eastman (Edinburgh and Stirling MAN) network that connects universities and colleges.3. wide of the mark Area Networks (WANs) These connect networks over a large geographical area, such as betwixt opposite buildings, towns or even countries. 4. A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANs within a limited geographical area. In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including, for example, academic colleges or departments, the university library, and student residence halls. 5. A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network use for communication among computer and different information proficient doohickeys close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal co mputers, printers, fax machines, earphones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and receiving set devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters analysis situsNetwork topology is the arrangement of the unhomogeneous elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically. There are two basic categories of network topologies1. Physical topology refers to the placement of the networks conglomerate components, including device location and rail line installation, 2. logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. The study of network topology recognizes eight basic topologies Point-to-point = the simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints. Bus = A running(a) bus topology consists of a main run of cable length with a terminator at each end (See fig. 1). All nod es (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable.Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology casual to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are ask at both ends of the backbone cable. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building. Star = A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator (See fig. 2). Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before move to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with misrepresented pair c able however, it can also be used with coaxial cable or quality optic cable. Advantages of a Star Topology Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Disadvantages of a Star Topology Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc. butt on = A network topology that is set up in a circular fashion in which data travels around the ring in one direction and each device on the salutary acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as it travels. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring. When a device sends data, it must travel through each device on the ring until it reache s its destination. Every node is a critical link. Mesh = The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communication groups of any two endpoints, up to and including all the endpoints Advantages of Mesh topology1) Data can be transmittable from different devices simultaneously. This topology can withstand high traffic. 2) Even if one of the components fails there is al delegacys an secondary present. So data transfer doesnt get affected. 3) Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes. Disadvantages of Mesh topology1) There are high chances of redundancy in many of the network connections. 2) Overall cost of this network is way too high as compared to other network topologies. 3) Set-up and maintenance of this topology is very difficult. Even administration of the network is tough. Tree = A shoetree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consis ts of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable (See fig. 3). Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs. Advantages of a Tree Topology Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. Supported by several hardware and software venders.Disadvantages of a Tree Topology Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies. cross = cross networks use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e.g., bus, star, ring, etc.). For example a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network topology. A crossbreeding topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected. Two common examples for Hybrid network are star, ring network and star bus network Daisy chain = Except for star-based networks, the easiest way to add more computers into a network is by daisy-chaining, or connecting each computer in serial to the next. If a message is intended for a computer partway down the line, each system bounces it along in sequence until it reaches the destination. A daisy-chained network can take two basic forms linear and ring.o The straight-through cables are used when connecting Data Terminating Equipment (DTE) to Data Communications Equipment (DCE), such as computers and routers to modems (gateways) or hubs (Ethernet Switches). The cross-over cables are used when connecting DTE to DTE, or DCE to DCE equipment such as computer to computer, computer to router or gateway to hub connections. The DTE equipment terminates the signal, while DCE equipment do not. RJ stands for Registered Jacks. These are used in telephone and data jack wiring registered with FCC. RJ-11 is a 6-position, 4 -conductor jack used in telephone wiring, and RJ-45 is a 8-position, 8-conductor jack used in 10BaseT and 100BaseT Ethernet wiring. UTP stands for Unshielded Twisted Pair. It is the cabling system with one or more pairs of twisted insulated copper wires contained in a single sheath. It is the most widely used cabling system in telecommunications and data communications environment today.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Life and Oxygen EssayThis assignment requires answering questions based on the exhibit The Earliest Traces of Life at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. The exhibit that you are to see is on the upright side as you enter the Rotunda from Jefferson Street. Enter the exhibit h all(prenominal) under the dinosaur banner. As you go by this doorway, the exhibit is located to the right. For additional information on the location, hours, ect., go the museum web site at www.mnh.si.edu and prate on the Information desk link.Study the exhibit and answer the following questions. Submit your answers in Blackboard. Please judgment the short movie that comes along with the exhibit.Early Atmosphere1. How abundant was type O in the early standard atmosphere? The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere was abundant, however, due harmful radiation waves from the sun, photosynthetic systems such as plants were non able to evolve thus leaving the state of oxygen subtle. 2.What evidence do scientists turn out that the oxygen content of our atmosphere has increased since the earths origin?The O-zone layer is composed of 3 oxygen atoms formed after photosynthetic organisms release an extra oxygen molecule into the atmosphere. 2. Why is oxygen more abundant in the atmosphere today?Because of the high amount of plants that produce oxygen which were not here in the early stages of livelihood on earth 3. What are stromatolites? Stromatolites are the bindings of microorganisms on rocks and stones, normally submerged underwater, these rocks are usually used as samples for the earliest signs of life 4. What do scientists think is implied by the presence of stromatolites in Precambrian rock? Scientists would conclude that life was formed underwater and the process of evolution at long last allowed multi-cellular organisms to make their way off the ocean and/or bodies of water. 5. What is ozone and how is it produced?The o-zone layer is the protective layer made o f 3 oxygen atoms, it is usually formed by the extra oxygen resulted from a photosynthetic organism. 6. Why is ozone of import to life today?Because it protects us from ultra-violet rays from the sun which are extremely harmful and sometimes fatal to all life forms. 7. What effect did increased levels of oxygen in the atmosphere have on early life forms? It caused organisms that were not light and/or oxygen dependent to disappear as mammals and other multi-cellular organisms began to take over.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
contact and Open Shale Rock EssayThe past few days in class we have been discipline about the process of fracking and how it is either harmful, or useful to our nation. There be numerous arguments for both sides that measure up pros and cons for fracking and if fracking should be legal to operate. Fracking is known as hydraulic fracturing with the use of sand, pee, and chemicals that are injected at high pressures to charge open shale rock and release the trapped gas inside. The process of fracking starts with drilling a hole boneheaded in the earths surface until it reaches natural gas. From there they can start the operation and intend the natural gas. Oil and gas companies that use fracking state that it is very salutary and does not harm the environment. On the other hand fracking has been reported to cause risks to air, land, water, wildlife, and communities by other sources, rather than the oil and gas companies. match to Josh Fox a journalist who directed Gasland a 2010 documentary found that fracking is making pack sick, contaminating water, and affecting wildlife.Yes, fracking can have some positive aspects, but the cons out way the pros drastically. Fracking is spoiled for our environment and can harm many individuals near fracking sites, or affect their land, and animals. Therefore, regulations and base hitty should be ameliorate for fracking to stop all the negative aspects from happening, or ban fracking as a whole. Families near fracking zones have untell able headaches and even very serious sicknesses ever since the fracking started. Fracking uses more than 596 chemicals which are released into the ground through a pipe. cut can intersect with underground water which would mix the 596 chemicals with that causing contaminated water. Households are affected by this because their water comes out multicolored ranging from musky grey to black. At some Houses Josh Fox visited they were able to set their water on fire. In the document ary he used a lot of delirious appeal to show how hard families are being affected by this tragic event, and shows how tough acquiring through a day is becoming without getting some type of sickness.Fracking also affects wildlife and land by contaminating water streams and the soil animals live on. In one scene of Gasland Josh Fox went to a ladies house where she had collected dead animals around her land. These animals were not present until the fracking started, and then after that they just started go dead. There were other cases of mountain going into streams or even using their own house water that gave them sores, and harsh rashes throughout their body. In the documentary this showed a very effective way of getting people attention and underlining how master(prenominal) this is.In the other documentary Fracknation directed by Phelim McAleer he shows why fracking is important and how it is safe for our environment. The only positive aspect of fracking is it would help our n ation out a ton with gas, cast down prices drastically, and we would be the leading natural gas supplier in the world. This documentary didnt really closure my attention that much because why would all these cases of sicknesses and contaminated water pop up right when fracking became big.If fracking became safe and didnt harm anything in the environment then it would be the greatest idea ever invented. culmination up with new regulations to improve fracking and make it 100 percent safe would be the only sympathy I would accept the concept of fracking. As of right now fracking is very harmful to many, and the chemicals used are being released in the atmosphere, and in the soil which is contaminating many things and affecting the quality of the air. Fracking is not safe for anyone or anything located near a fracking zone.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Comparaison Between Mcmxiv hymn for fated Youth EssayIn both of these verses hymn For Doomed Youth and MCMXIV lambasting active war, Wilfred Owen and Philip Larkin try in antithetical ways to engrave in their readers minds the atrocious actions that war provoked with different language, voice unless also form.First of all, the poems argon written in a different way. Anthem For Doomed Youth with his ABAB CDCD ABBACC rhyme scheme is in fact a sonnet. However, a sonnet is commonly used to glorify love and romance whereas Anthem For Doomed Youth focuses on the First institution War. We rout out assume that Wilfred Owen surely wanted to contrast these both opposite subjects to create an ironic atmosphere. We can already guess the poem is going to be powerful and memorable. On the separate hand, the second poem, MCMXIV,is placid of 4 stanzas containing each 8 lines but which dont have a rhythmic pitch. For me, it looks standardized Philip Larkin is narrating a tale or a story. In my opinion, the sonnet gives a rhythm to the poem and catches oft the readers attention even if it seems shorter than Larkins poem.Secondly, we know both of these poems are talking somewhat the First Wold War. But if we look a little bit closer, we can clearly feel a difference in the choice of words and language. After reading the first poem, we feel a change integrity of disgust, revulsion and unfairness whereas after(prenominal) reading Philip Larkins one, melancholia, emptiness and sadness invade us. How can two poems with the same subject can lead to such different feelings?The sonnet looks like it is divided in two parts, both of the stanzas start with a question What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?, What candles may be held to speed them all? Then, the following lines answer to the questions. For me, it seems its like a speech with two rhetorical questions. The poet asks the questions but already has the answers and responds to it very precisely in a very negative way no, nor, not are used at the beginning of a line following the question.Anthem For Doomed Youth is a small but efficient poem. Any word is present for a situation reason. The vocabulary used is snappy and harsh one such as monstrous anger nor some(prenominal) voice of mourning who die as cattle. It sounds like Wilfred Owen wants to shock us. He plunges us in the horror of the war we can almost sound the stuttering rifles, see the holy glimmers of goodbyes. He definitely wants to expect his disgust toward war. Indeed, we are not facing a peaceful war as the whole state expected in 1914, these young boys do not bravely die for their nation its a horrific battle which ravage both sides but both stubbornly do not bring in any move to stop this carnage.Owen makes us feel the constant fear, the incomprehension of this pointless ravage Withal, the second poem has a more smooth way of approach. Philip Larkin wants to have an affective impact. He doesnt use bang a vo cabulary like Wilfred Owen but a melancholic one. on that point is this feeling of confinement and reclusion shut shops, sunblinds, shadowing Doomsday lines. Whereas we could almost hear the stuttering rifles in Anthem For Dommed Youth, here, in MCMXIV, silence is the only fair to middling sound. No one should make noise, in honour of all the dead soldiers who fought naively for a do that wasnt even directly linked to their nation.Wilfred Owen expresses the horror of the trench warfare whereas Philip Larkin enters in the impact on social consequences that War leaded to. Life will never be the same again after this tragedy. Not only will the soldiers be shell-shocked, but the whole population will be too. still though women and children were not on the battlefront, they still experienced the war at home fronts.Owen also uses repetitions to underscore some specific phrases. The second and third lines both start with the word only and are followed by personifications of weapons li ke the monstrous anger of the guns and stuttering riffles rapid rattle it is almost like the poet cannot even distinguish the military personnel beings and machines. The men do not kill each others anymore, the machines do. The repetition of the no, nor, not is also a strong sign there isnt any hope in anything, we cannot see positive anymore. There is a constant anxiety in the soldiers eyes. The word choirs is also written two times. The acknowledgment in music could be positive but here, it is not.It is a music which leads to an inevitable death. It could also refer to the blink of an eye of soldiers. A worrying rhythm that could stop anytime. There is also a repetition in MCMXIV in the last stanza never (thee times). But once again, we cannot feel anger only a strong sorrow. humankind can never be innocent again after the terrible massacre of this War. Larkin accepts with resignation what happened what is through is done. The dead people will not come back. The only thing we c an do is remember them and commemorate them. On the contrary, Owen cannot tolerate this thought and he feels obliged to relate the catastrophic event gratingly to prevent people to never do that again. The human loss is literally and psychologically intolerable.Finally, we can prove about the poets choice of title of their poems. An anthem is a choral composition having a unspeakable or moralizing text. So, this poem is aimed to all the heroes who died fighting. Nevertheless, the adjective doomed comes to spoil the word anthem. Doomed is only fate, something inevitable. It is true we cannot win over death but at least, we can delay it as much as we can, whereas the following word youth has a tragic connotation. Young people are not supposed to die, their fate is to enjoy life as much as they can but this war comes to destroy all their dreams and hopes. MCMXIV is the number 1914 in ancient roman. We can assume it is a reference to the past, Roman letters still exist after hundre ds of years, maybe Larkin wants his poem to be remembered as much as these numbers?To conclude, we can say that even if Wilfred Owen and Philip Larkin did have different ways of approach to talk about war, they both caused very strong feelings. One used an aggressive and impulsive pen whereas the other provoked sadness and respect toward the fallen soldiers. In fact, they definitely agree in one akin point First World War was a tragedy that no one should ever forget.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
The ohmic vindication in a piece of fit EssayAlso if the atoms in the material argon more closely jam-packed therefore the electrons leave acquire more frequent collisions and the resistance pull up s sequestrates increase. I get out substance abuse Nichrome scarce. 4 Density of wire- In a higher density wire in that location will be a higher resistance because there will be more fixed ions and more collisions. 5 Temperature of wire- If the wire is heated up the atoms in the wire will start to vibrate because of their increase in energy. This causes more collisions between the electrons and the atoms as the atoms are moving into the path of the electrons. This increase in collisions means that there will be an increase in resistance.6 Shape of wire- the wire will be clean and attachd to a meter rule, the shape of the wire whitethorn increase the resistance. 7 voltage of 2 volts- I will pass on to keep a constant voltage because if the voltage flips then the resi stance will change. The equation for resistance = voltage / current. If voltage increases, resistance increases. Apparatus The apparatus I will need to perform this taste will be 1 Power pack (2volts) 2 Ammeter 3 Voltmeter 4 6 wires 5 2 crocodile clips 6 Meter rule 7 Masking tape 8 Board sicer Circuit diagram Method I have elect to recognize a range of 10 aloofnesss.I have chosen a range of 10 as to plot an accurate graph I will need at least 10 points to mark on the graph. The spaces that I have chosen are as follows 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40 cm, 50cm, 60cm, 70cm, 80cm, 90cm and 100cm. I have chosen these durations because the meter ruler substructure easily measure them and enough chairs to make a firm conclusion. To change the aloofness of the Nichrome wire during the experiment I will tape down 1 meter of Nichrome 32 swg wire to a meter rule. I will then connect the 2 crocodile clips diverse distances obscure employ the measurements on the meter rule.The wire will be attac hed at X in the circuit. In my experiment I will find the current in the circuit using an ammeter and I will find the voltage in the wire using a voltmeter. I will retort these two yarns so I elicit then calculate the resistance using the equation resistance = voltage / current. I want to make my experiment as accurate as possible so I want to produce fictionalise variants so that I can find an average resistance. I will be using a variable star resistor in my experiment to produce these repeat readings. I will draw 4 equally spaced points on the variable resistor with a board marker.To shit my repeat readings I will move the variable resistor to these 4 points and get four readings for each duration. After I have found the average resistance for each length of wire I will produce a graph showing the average resistance against the length of the wire. I will draw on my graph a government note of best fit and then from this I will be able to see if my prediction was correct and if the resistance does increase when the length of wire increases. 1. Set up a circuit as shown above. Set the power pack at a constant voltage of 2 volts. 2. At X in the circuit the wire will be placed.I will first connect the crocodile clips 100cm aside. Then play the voltmeter and ammeter on and ensure the variable resistor is set at the first point. 3. Now turn on the power pack and testify the first way outs shown on the ammeter and voltmeter. I must take the first results because the results may change due to overheat if the power pack is left hand on. Now turn off the power pack. 4. To take my repeat reading of 100cm I will then move the slider on the variable resistor to the second tag point. I will now turn on the power pack and record the first result shown on the ammeter and voltmeter. 5.I will continue taking my repeat readings and moving the variable resistor on and recording the results for 100cm. 6. I will then change the length of wire to 90cm by moving the cr ocodile clips and i will set the variable resistor at the first point. Then I will turn on the power pack and record the first set of results. I will take 4 repeat readings for each length of Nichrome wire. 7. I will record 4 repeat readings for each length of Nichrome wire until I have results for all 10 lengths.Results table Length (cm) Repeat number Voltage (volts) Current (amps) Resistance (? ) Average 17. 82 I have put in bold either anomalous results. Analysing and considering evidence Conclusion From my graph I can tell that my prediction was correct. As the length increases the resistance increases, a piece of 20cm wire has a resistance of 3.8 ? and a piece of 30cm wire has a resistance of 5. 6 ?. This is because a longer piece of wire has a higher resistance because in a longer piece of wire there are more collisions between the electrons and the metal ions.In every successful collision energy is lost from the electron to the wire ions. The result is that the voltage of th e wire increases. Because the equation for resistance is resistance = voltage / current, the resistance then increases. From my bourne of best I can also tell that as the length reduplicates the resistance always almost look-alikes too. A piece of 20cm wire has a resistance of 3.8 ? and a piece of 40cm wire has a resistance of 7. 4 ?.Double 3. 8 ? is 7. 6 ? this is almost double but not instead probably because my experiment was not quite accurate. A piece of wire 30cm long had a resistance of 5. 6 ? and a piece of wire 60cm long has a resistance of 11. 1 ?. This is also almost double, double 5. 6 ? is 11. 2 ?. The resistance doubles as the length doubles because there can be double the amount of successful collisions so double the amount of energy is lost causing the voltage to double and so the resistance doubles. Key Electron Metal ion Predicted results Length (cm)Predicted resistance ( ? )Actual resistance ( ? ) exit ( ? ) 1All of my results were quite close to my predicted results but as the length increases my predicted resistances become less accurate. This could have been for several reasons that are mentioned in my evaluation but probably as my experiment went on the wire overheated so my results became less accurate.Evaluating My method of collecting my results worked quite well. I gained the results I expected from my experiment. The quality of my evidence was good. My line of best fit went through almost all of my points on my graph and was quite similar to my predicted line of best. I did have some anomalous results. When I experimented with 10cm of Nichrome wire my fourth repeat readings was quite different to the other readings. It had a resistance 0. 87 ? that was the lowest repeat readings for 10cm. The second lowest was 1. 80 ? , this is quite a lot more than the anomalous result.When investigating which 30cm of Nichrome wire I had another anomalous result that was 6. 48 ? , the third repeat reading. This was the biggest repeat reading. The second largest was only 5. 89 ?. This could have been because I left the power pack on too long. This causes the wire to overheat. When I was measuring the lengths of the Nichrome wire my measurements might have been slightly inaccurate. The rulers used might not have been aim and it was difficult to get an accurate reading of length by eye as the wire was not completely straight.Also the ruler may have been of different thicknesses throughout the length. This would have contributed as a slight error in my results. The ammeter and voltmeter could have been slightly faulty and not given me correct, accurate readings. I connected the wire into the circuit using crocodile clips. These were quite loose and so this could have made my results less accurate. If I improved my method I could either attach the wires with tape but this may affect my results so instead I could solder the Nichrome wire into my circuit.It was difficult to adjust the variable resistor slider accurately only b y eye. If I did the investigation again I could try to and adjust the variable resistor accurately I will use an advanced digital variable resistor. I also found it difficult to measure exact lengths against the meter rule because the crocodile clips didnt clip on to the wire very securely. If I did the investigation again I could pre cut all the lengths of wire before the experiment instead of just connecting the crocodile clips at different distances apart on the meter rule.To further my investigation I could use the same method but increase the range of lengths. I could use lengths of up to 3 meters. I could take readings from lengths at smaller intervals I could take reading every 5cm instead of every 10cm as I did. I could also take more repeat readings to get a even more accurate average. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Case Study Mcdonalds EssayIt operates over 35000 restaurants in more than than 100 countries on six continents. 5 It has an unparalleled global infrastructure and competencies in restaurant operations, documentary estate, retailing, marketing and franchising. McDonalds website says that it is a leader in the area of social responsibility and is committed to protect the environment for future generations. 7 Strong and wide communication channel in the market. (deng, 2009) 8 work areas for children. 9 Large target markets. 10 Recession resistant (Birchall, 2008) 11 In September 2003 booming backing up of current products was launched with MTVs advertising campaign featuring the new tag line, Im Lovinit. (Jennifer, 2004) WEAKNESSES 1 McDonalds has not achieved its growth expectations in past several years. Narrow Product lines. (deng, 2009) 3 McDonalds brand association as a junk pabulum. (deng, 2009) 4 Few option for goodly eating 5 High employee turnover rates. (macy, 2012 ) 6 McDonalds also have or so ejecthanded effects on environment. (ltd. , 2006) 7 McDonalds also faces many types of legal actions on many issues. OPPORTUNITIES 1 Product packing for McDonalds now features QR codes for customers to get nutritional information. Mcnamara, 2013) 2 Opportunity to enlarge market, the consumers who care near health issue. (deng, 2009) 3 Slightly changing market brand image of McDonalds. (deng, 2009) 4 In 2009, McDonalds launched its hefty Angus burger in all U. S. A locations. 5 Introduction of trans-fat-free cut fries in all restaurants in the U. S.A and Canada. 6 Introduction of McCafe. 7 Testing marketing fruits and vegetables as adroit meal at roughly outlets. 8 McDonalds franchises overseas became a favorite target of concourse and groups expressing antiglobalization sentiments. Entry into new and highly popular product categories. THREATS 1 Public attack about corpulency issue. (deng, 2009) 2 Changing taste of consumers. (deng, 2009) 3 Unab le to keep patrons as special regularize sandwiches offered by rivals Burger King and Wendys. 4 Promotional plans like McDonalds game found conspiracy with 51 commonwealth aerated in a part of scam fetching $24 million by stealing winning McDonalds tickets. 5 McDonalds showed a delayed effect than other restaurants operators in switching over to cypher trans-fat cooking oil colour. In 2001 McDonalds was sued for hurting religious sentiments by vegetarian groups for not revealing its flavors in french fries as it added beef extract to vegetable oil and showing it as veg in menu. 7 Consumers began filing law suits that eating at McDonalds had made them over weight. 8 Competition from burger kings and Wendys. (Thomadsen, 2007) marketplace SEGMENTATION TARGET MARKET BABY BOOMERS GENERATION X GENERATION Y GENERATION Z DEMOGRAPHICS 45-65+ 35-44 19-34 0-18GEOGRAPHICS URBAN URBAN URBAN URBAN PSYCOGRAPHICS More concerned with low cholesterol nourishment More concerned with low fat nu triment More concerned with physical fitness food products Generally eats taste oriented food products BEHAVIOURAL Mostly concerned with good fibre of food products Requires access with quick and fresh food service Generally catch-up food by themselves by reaching out Check out with friends and family ISSUE ANALYSIS In 2004,Morgan Spurlocks documentary drive Super-Size Me gave very criticism to McDonalds fast nutrition, in which he shows how he gains fat and smash his health by eating McDonalds. 2 In 1998 McDonalds detonateed Made for you System but it was not successful. There was a decrease in growth of bargains in stores. 3 In 1999 to begin with the implementation of made for you scheme ,McDonalds planned to provide about 190 million in financial assistance to its franchisees ,but the actual cost of implementing the system ran much higher than the corporation had estimated. In 2001, 51 people were charged conspiring to rig McDonalds game promotions over the course of sever al years, revealing that $24 million of winning McDonalds game tickets had been stolen as a part of scam.5 In 2004, McDonalds was sued for extracting a handsome amount beef added in to the vegetable oil used for cooking French fries. 6 Many people still complain that the food served by McDonalds is not gamey to eat. RECOMMENDATIONS PRODUCT - 1 McDonalds should provide hot food to eat because many customers complaint that their food is not so hot to eat otherwise it get out affect sales. McDonalds should bring some new healthier products for all ages because bad effect on health is one of the weaknesses of McDonalds and bringing some healthier food will help to overcome this image. 3 McDonalds should provide some free snacks because it will help it compete with its competitors and increase sales. 4 McDonalds should make their products in fat free oil because it will have good effect on health. 5 McDonalds should also provide some regional food because in this way some rural people will also start accepting its products. Launching of new fried and bone in treats in Chicago. equipment casualty- 1 The price of products should be affordable because if they will not be affordable to small income group then its sale will be affected and it will also give the opportunity to competitors to increase their sales. 2 The prices of products should be regularly checked so as to compete with competition because people will buy those products which they plunder get in low price. dumbfound- 1 McDonalds should open new franchises in small cities also . It will help them to cover its business and increase growth. McDonalds should increase the number of its franchises in all countries in order to expand its business. PROMOTION- 1 McDonalds should provide some cut on more products purchased because in this way people will buy more. Because some people will start purchasing more items if they can get discount. 2 McDonalds should provide home actors line service because som etimes some people cant go to store in order to purchase them. It will increase sales. 3 McDonalds should provide online sale because in this way people can place their orders online. McDonalds is working on new salads and wraps . (wong, 2013) 5 McDonald, s will judge the new fried and bone in treats in Chicago. (wong, 2013) 6 Success of mighty wings in Atlanta. (wong, 2013) BEST RECOMMENDATIONS PRODUCT- McDonalds should provide some healthier food for all ages because health obesity is the major problem with McDonalds . In this way they can get good image regarding health. PRICE- Prices of products should be regularly checked in order to compete with competition because people will cheapest product. PLACE-McDonalds should open new small franchises at small cities also because it will help him to expand its business and increase growth rates. PROMOTION- McDonalds should provide home delivery service because sometimes people cant go to store in order to purchase product. BIBLIOGRAPH Y Bibliography Birchall, J. (2008). McDonalds claims fast food sales fighting off slowdown. Financial times. deng, t. (2009, may). McDonalds new strategy on changing attitudes and communication. International ledger of marketing studies, 37-42. Jennifer, R. (2004). online branding the case of McDonalds. ritish food journal. ltd. , n. m. (2006). ICCR sponsered proxy resolutions on genetically modified organisms gain comprehension among shareholders at wendys McDonalds . financial wire. macy, a. (2012). financing a remodela case of McDonalds Franchisee. journal of case seek in business and economics. Mcnamara, B. (2013). McDonalds give the people what they want. Nutrition business journal. Thomadsen, r. (2007). product positiong and competionthe role of location in the fast food industry. Marketing science. wong, V. (2013). will McDonalds mighty wings fly? Business weak.
Monday, April 8, 2019
School Driver EssayMy auntie, a develop getr, she has a problem of picking the student up to school. She lives in Belvedere Garden, and picks student to the school in Shek miscellany state (the map is on the break down page). In order to carry on the cost by turn off the outstrip to the school, she asked me to solve the problem for her. By the virtue of keen competition, she couldnt charge for the high fees from the students. Besides, the fuel is really costly and variable. Thus, her income becomes unstable. She tries to solve it by picks up much than students from different impersonates, but the routes will be much complex and the time does not allow her to do so.She has to pick 50 students up from 12 places, in that location are 10 seats left and because she can sole(prenominal) save the cost by pick more students up from these 12 places but not the other places. I also run aground her driving routes have a great problem, she didnt submit the fastest way. S o I will choose the fastest routes for her. She has to reason 4 times per school day 1. From BG to disseminated lupus erythematosus (through all places in shortest routes) 2. From SLE to BG (fastest routes to back photographic plate) 3. From BG to SLE (fastest routes to back to school) 4. From SLE to BG (through all the places in shortest routes).I have asked her where the 12 places were, how more than profits she earns heartly per month and how much the costs are. Here is the information The name of the twelve place Belevedere Garden Phase 3 (BG) Tsuen King Garden (TKG) Clague Garden Estate (CGE) Disco actually Park (DP) piddle Side Plaza (WSP) Luk Leung Sun Chuen (LYSC) Pa Tin Pa Tsuen (PTPT) Kwai Yin Court (KYC) Lei Muk Chuen Estate (LMSE) Shek Yam Estate (SYE) Shek Yam East Estate (SYEE) Shek Lei Estate (SLE) The distances between the places Second turn on After sending the students to the school, my aunt will then go back home (From SLE to BG).Her passkey route is showed below BGi DPi KYCi SLE 5km Third drive She has to pick up the students again after the school (From BG to SLE). Her lord route is showed below BG 13. 09km The total distance of the whole drive is 12. 6 + 5 + 5 + 13. 09=35. 69km There are 22 school days average per month, which means the total distance of wiz month is 35. 69 x 22 = 785km.In HK, the cost of the fees are 15p per km average, thus her original cost per month is 785 x 15p = i 118 and her income is i 810. So her actual income decreases to i 810 i 118 = i 692 Now I am going to find out the shortest routes of four drives. For the first drive and the last drive, I solve the problem by showing all possible ways as she has to go through all 12 places. The second and the third drive, I do only find the shortest routes and therefore I will use the Dijkstras algorithm. There are 52 way in the first drive and 66 ways in the fourth drive. Possible ways for first drive BGi TKGi PTPTiTherefore, the new total distance per month is (12. 12 + 4. 93 + 4. 93 + 12. 6) x 22 = 761km The new cost is 761 x 15p = i 114 So her actual income increases to i 810 i 114 = i 696 If my aunt is willing to use this my methods, she could save i 4 a month (i 696 i 692 = i 4) Evaluation As a result, I saved i 4 for my aunt. In England, people may think that i 4 is incisively a little amount of money. However, i 4 in Hong Kong and China you can help numerous poor. They may get warm and full by buying food, clean water and clothes. I suggested my aunt that she could save more by delete the second and the third drives.It saves almost i 33 more (4. 93 x 2 x 22 x 15p ). It would spend her leisure at home during the resting time but save her more money. She could also earn more by picking more students from those 12 places. The cost cannot save so much because the routes in Hong Kong are not very eagle-eyed but complex, Hong Kong is just a point in the map only. In addition, she picks students up from 2 districts only and therefore the roads are shorter. The time is a problem as well, she is not allowed to pick more students. Otherwise, all of the students will be late for school and their parents will complain her.In the first drive and fourth drive, I have found out the shortest routes by showing all possible. Actually, its very nasty to find out and its take me a long time. When I was doing it, I needed to check many times whether I had showed all the possible or not. Besides, its easy to make mistakes when I was calculating the distance of the possible routes. In the second and the third drive, I used Djkstras algorithm to find out the shortest easily. It is very convenience and hard to make a mistake. This is the best method for me which I have learned. I squeeze my aunt as well and she found it is useful.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Surgical superior improvement EssayThrough a review of blood utilization in the surgical units, the administrative manager of clinical operations for a large infirmary noted what she believed to be a prodigious variation in the number of transfusion orders being placed per surgical case among the surgeons on staff. She brought the top dog to the surgical quality improvement committee, and the committee initiated a review of current standard practice for monastic order transfusions within the surgical units of the hospital and also a review of best practices as supported by current research evidence. They discovered that the evidence from transfusion research revealed that transfusion therapy can result in a variety of adverse patient outcomes, including the transmission of infection diseases and allergic reactions. As a result, the hospital medical staff moved to adopt as its general best practice for transfusion ordinance a minimum hemoglobin concentration of 7g/dL (21% hem atocrit) as an indication for red cell transfusions and a 10g/dL hemoglobin concentration (30% hematocrit) as a level at which transfusion therapy usually is unnecessary. after(prenominal) the approved best practice guideline was introduced to the medical staff, a blood utilization dashboard was substantial that helps responsible clinical managers identify at the physician level when transfusion orders are placed setback to the guideline. Having this information available enables the clinical manager to address the issue on a unit or with the individual physician involved. Use of this dashboard has resulted in significant reduction in the variation in transfusion ordering practices among the medical staff and a significant reduction in blood utilization, which equates to a significant reduction in costs of maintaining the blood supply, and an improvement in patient outcomes.Questions1. What info elements must(prenominal) be accessed from the clinical data repository to drive the blood utilization dashboard? Explain. 2. What clinical data systems might this data come from? Explain.Support your answers from the text, supplemental readings, and any otherapplicable resources.APA Page setupPages should be set with 1-inch margins.Font should be 12-point Times New Roman.Lines should be doubled-spaced throughout the papers, without extra spaces at the top or bottom of the page or between paragraphs or sections. A complete document includes a title page, an abstract (if the instructor requires it), the body of the paper, a reference list, and appendices (if indicated). The paper should be 1 to 2 pages in length, not including cover page.Latour, K. M., Maki, S. E., Oachs, P. A. (2013). Health information management Concepts, principles, and practice (4th ed.). Chicago AHIMA Press.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Armed forces EssayThis section admits information on the soldiers, sailors and airman who gained, maintained and then lost an pudding rock candy. It must be re processed that the vast majority of the empires soldiery custody was recruited from outside the m yet about other verdant. It is inte endureing to n ane that several(prenominal) of the fiercest resistors to the British went on to bring to pass the staunchest preciselyies and defenders of her empire High shopping center downers, Sikhs and Gurkhas are perhaps the best examples of this pheno mena.The military history of the empire is rich in colour and modification merely is in like manner inevitably linked to the darker and more sinister side of the empire through conquest, peace and destruction. The tentacles of the military spread throughout the empire and beyond, the armed forces were non solitary(prenominal) the conquerors and defenders of the empire solely also provided the garrisons that policed t he vast expanses of territory and enabled communication all over the vast distances involved. The military was in truth much the approximately historic institution of the empire.Land forces InfantryThe years to the highest degree 1783 were tumultuous unitarys for the armament and things were about to become even out more difficult in the near future. The Army was coming to the end of its actions in the 13 colonies. semipolitical and military defeat hung heavily over Britain at the eon. The regular multitude had borne the brunt of the un achieverful campaign and so were associated with the failure. animateness was to become even more dangerous and precarious for the British army as it become drag in the highly difficult task of containing the expansion of Revolutionary and then Napoleonic France. The army would indeed be forced to expand to an unusu e precise(prenominal)y large surface and would be strained to its limits. The prominent channelize played by the Britis h army in ultimately defeating Napoleon would restore its pride and prestigiousness both at home and overseas.In the period fol scummying victory in 1815, the British army was regarded as the fire brigade of the Empire being sent to wherever there were disturbances or problems. It would become involved in countless littler wars in far flung corners of the globe, virtually of which would be successful endeavours. However, the army would be sorely tested by the events of the Crimean war and the Indian mutiny. The problems encountered in these actions provided the rationale for the Cardwell army reforms which were employ comeively from the late 1860s to the early 1880s.The numbering clay hired by the British army in order to determine precedence was initiative used in 1751. The year 1782 is interesting because it is the runner clock that umpteen of these regiments were associated with a specific local area. Theoretically, this was to be where their depot was to be based and their recruiting to take place. However, everlasting strategicalal and man condition needs meant that these regiments could be posted anywhere and were keen to take recruits from wherever they could discover them. In this period of history, the numbers were the more important of the desig republics and would be used on a daytime to day basis. However, the territorial titles would later form the basis of the next major overhaul of the regimental system almost exactly 100 years later the Cardwell Army reforms.Foot guardsNumberTitle manhood-classThe First regiment of Foot Guards2ndThe support (Cold stream) Regiment of Foot Guards3rdHis Majesties Third Regiment of Foot GuardsCavalryFirst troop of life guardsBadgeNicknamesThe BangersLumpersThe CheesemongersThe Fly-slicersThe Piccadilly ButchersThe Roast and BoiledThe Ticky TinsThe Tin BelliesThe unmixed SafetiesMottoHoni soit qui mal y penseEvil be to him who evil thinksRegimental shewesMillanollo (Quick)Val HammThe bread and s olelyter Guards Slow March (Slow)Regimental AnniversaryWaterloo Day 18th JuneColonels1660 1788Soldiers1660 1788Successor Units1st Life Guards(1660 1788)The Life Guards(1922 )Suggested Reading revolutionarys report of the Household Cavalryby Sir George Arthur(Constable 1909, 1926 3 vols)The Story of the First Life Guards(Harrap 1922)Historical Record of the Life Guards(London Clowes 1836)Regimental MuseumHousehold Cavalry MuseumCombermere BarracksWindsorMore go tohttp//www.btinternet.com/britishempire/empire/forces/armyunits/britishcavalry/1sttroopofhorseguards.htmlArtilleryHorse artillery barrage Sergeant-MajorThe other picture of the Battery Sergeant-major is a coloured engraving from a photo. He has gold braiding. The coveringrest end of a 12-pounder is accurately sh puddle got.Officer 1890The Officer is in full dress on his charger.Sergeants with 12 PounderThe Sergeants are in various forms of dress. The one in the forground is in full dress or parade dress, the others ar e in different factions of working dress.Mounted SergeantThe gold cord braiding on his jacket indicates that he is a Sergeant.F Battery in Second Afghan war knowledge and applied scienceTransportRail delegacysThe ordinal coke saw many technological veers, further none of them were to let as wide repurcussions as the ruse of the train. The power of steam had been known for whatsoever time but applying this power to moving heavy goods and people over long distances was one application that would have obscure consequences and serve the British and their Empire for well over a hundred years.It was George Stephenson who realised the full power and potential of the steam engine when he designed a machine that could take advantage of intend copper tubes which could be heated to create the all important steam power. The Rocket was the first such(prenominal) steam engine to take advantage of this revolutionary technology as it lock awayd between Liverpool and Manchester from 1 830. However, technical change was to become rapid and the train was to change its appearance and technical specifications again and again.Inevitably, it was the mother country that first saw her landscape transformed by this new invention. Navvies from Ireland, Scotland and the North of England scarred the landscape with viaducts, bridges and tunnels in the pursuit of the smooth gradients that trains required to journey at their most efficient level. They were paid a pittance for excruciate and dangerous work. In many ways, these navvies represented one of the largest migrations of Imperial settlers as they moved over from Ireland or as they followed the train tracks around the country and ended up settling in the last place they found work.In 1847 there were a quarter of a million navvies digging and blasting their way over the British landscape, their travels are one of the lesser documented migrations of history. However, the job they did is lull plain to take in in the Brit ish landscape some 150 years later and will be for many more years to come. The amount of track laid in Britain increased from only 500 miles in 1838 to over 8,000 by 1855. This expansion of track also brought shovel in the cost of travel so that all but the poorest could afford to travel by train. In the stagecoach days, a ticket from London to Manchester and back would have cost 3 10s but by 1851 the train fare for this same journey was only 5s (a seventh of the stagecoach fare) for a far quicker and more comfortable journey.Of course, the expansion of the railway systems didnt just rest on the invention of the steam train. Iron was require for the rails and its mass production helped to reduce the cost to the railway industry. In addition, iron girders and glass were used to construct magnificent looking railway stations. plain older industries, like stonemasonry were given a new lease of life as vast quantities of stone and rock were required for sleepers, bridges and stati ons. The railway age was an enormous boost to the economy of Britain, and would provide the country with one of the most efficient infrastructures for the remainder of the century.It wouldnt take compound administrators long to see the benefits that such an infrastructure could bring to the colonies they were in charge of. Particularly, as some of these colonies could be immense in size and with circumstantial existing infrastructure. Horses and ships had provided the most efficient means of transport to date, but ships obviously couldnt scope the interior and horses could non match the speed and power of this latest invention. The old established colonies like India, leapt at the railway opportunities and build a railway structure that would even rival the mother countrys in scope and scale. They were often financed by British industrialists keen to move the primary and secondary products of India to the ports ready to be exported to Britain and her factories. Cotton, spicerys and teas would all provide the stinting model for railway building that would later be copied in other colonies by other crops and industries base hit in Malaysia, coffee in South the States, grains in Canada and livestock in Australia and New Zealand.In some colonies, railways were used more as the initial spur to encourage colonisation of an area. In Africa, railways were built to provide an infrastructure that would lure white colonists into an area in order to farm the area and annul it into a productive small town. South Africa, Rhodesia and Kenya all wanted to increase their white population and increase the economic practise of their lands and all spent copious amounts of money and effort into building railways in what were very often godforsaken areas to European settlers. They all had varying degrees of success, but were built nonetheless. Indeed, one of the burning issues of late nineteenth century was Cecil Rhodes burning ambition to build a Cape to Cairo railway l ine that passed through British territory all the way. And this dream, although non realised by a train nedeucerk, certainly moldd a not bad(p) deal of Central African colonisation during the period.Another spur to the railway building in the nineteenth century was the British army. They too, quickly identified the advantages in being able to move troops and supplies around in a quick and efficient manner. The army would often try to influence local colonial administrators and get them to build railway lines to places which had little line of business or economic rationale. Alternatively, the army would build its own railway lines in areas they felt were necessary. In the case of Kitcheners Sudan campaign in the late 1890s, the army travelled down the Nile slowly but surely, not just out of tactical considerations, but because they were building a railway line as they travelled. In fact, this railway line is still in use as Sudans major railway line over a hundred years after it was built by the British army. Likewise in the Boer war, the British army came to depend on the strategic advantages of the railway network, but would also be exposed to the vulnerability of this network as the Boers transformed themselves into a guerilla army and destroyed bridges and lines at will. Despite this costly lesson, the British army maintained its respect and use of trains for many more years to come.Railways transformed the Empire in many ways, it increased business activity and allowed businesses to flourish in areas that foregoingly would have been impossible to make a living in. It allowed officials to move promptly over the areas that they governed. It allowed troops to be dispatched over great distances in short periods of time, indeed this speed of repartee removed much of the burden of having to station so many troops in a colony in the first place. Populations could benefit from access to cheaper goods as the factories of Europe could unleash their products to the far flung corners of the empire tin goods, newspapers, boot polish and toys could all be moved at a fraction of the cost from previous days.The people themselves could move around the empire whether for business or for pleasure families could be reunited more regularly, farmers could travel longer distances to get their products to market, businessmen could entertain clients from further afield. Even within relatively short distances and in crowded areas people wanted to enjoy the benefits of the train system. Therefore, in London, one of the more interesting railway innovations was devised in the 1860s the underground system, or the tube. Using twee ingenuity and technical engineering expertise an calculate underground system of trains was built that would be envied and copied by Metropolises the gentlemans gentleman over. And again, it reinvigorated the economic life of the urban center of London and allowed for yet another relocation of businesses and housing for the masses of that city.The advantages of the railways were apparent to virtually everyone. These were the days when progress was seen as a universal good and the railways were a prime example of this beneficent progress.ShipsEngland was a small island nation off the coast of the very powerful and dynamic continent of Europe proper. There were tether options open to the English ruling classes. First of all, she could immerse herself into European politics and economics. However, the competition on this scarecrow was particularly fierce cut, Italians, Austrians and a myriad of other powerful nations would ensure that England would only be one player in a field of many. Besides, wars and religion make dabbling in this arena a very expensive one. Second, she could turn in on herself and try to stay aloof from the goings on of the world. This strategy fit the Japanese in their dealings with their continental rivals. However the English were already keen handicraftrs and had acquired t astes and business practices that make this option an unpalatble one. Her third choice was to turn to the opportunities offered by the rest of the world. And it is because she chose this path that first England, and then Britain, turn herself into the preeminent naval nation of Europe and indeed the world.Englands rise as a maritime nation started with the reign of King Henry VIII. His ambitions were guided more to Europe, but he did manage to lay down financial and military foundations that would be taken advantage of by his successors. The Mary Rose is testimony to the size and power that the King sought to develop. He wanted a navy to project his power and influence onto the European political scene. Unfortunately, his plans and schemes were not fully realized during his reign. However, his treasury was full, the ports were protected by new castles and coastal defences and he had started a naval customs that would bequeath valuable skills and experience to later generations of sea goers.By the time Queen Elizabeth came to the throne, the most powerful maritime nations were S trouble and Portugal. These nations had encouraged explorers to find new, exciting and highly profitable trade routes. However, there were deep religious and philosophical divisions between these Catholic nations and the Protestant English. Queen Elizabeth had no love for these religious and economic rivals and basically sanctioned piracy on the high seas as a means of prosecuting war against the Catholic monarchies. Chief amongst her officially sanctioned privateers were Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins. These, and other sailors, wreaked havoc with Spanish and Portugese trade routes to the East Indies and particularly to the New World. The Caribbean became particularly notorious for rampant piracy.This rivalry turned into something of a naval arms race as the Spanish and English tried to outdo each other in terms of offensive power or in terms of speed to escape potential priv ateers.Military and commercial message ships of both nations would benefit from new technologies, techniques and skills. The naval rivalry between these two nations would reach a head in 1588 with the Spanish Armada. This Spanish attempt to stamp out her English rivals was a gamble that did not pay off. Bad weather and English seamanship saw that the Armada failed in its bid to land an army on English soil. More importantly, the destruction of much of the Armada left the English mariners in a very powerful position and particularly in the Caribbean and in the New World. In the East Indies with its spice trade, the English still had to deal with the Portugese and the Dutch as serious competitors. But with the removal of the Spanish, the English were escaped to develop an unprecedentedly successful economic venture.There were two main commercial activities that allowed the English to maximize there maritime advantage Sugar and Slavery. In fact, these were two complemantary activitie s that would work very decisionly together. Slaves were needed to tend and harvest the chou crops of the New World. The same ships that transported these slaves could then be loaded up with sugar and brought back to Europe. With the sexual climax of industrialisation in Britain, the third leg of this trip could also be do profitable. Cheap manufactured goods were taken from Liverpool and Bristol to West Africa and exchanged their for slaves, the slaves were exchanged for sugar in the Caribbean, and the sugar would in the end be sold in Europe at a huge profit. The profits involved meant that hardly a(prenominal) people overly concerned by any humanitarian or ethical issues. Indeed, the economic success of this trade would mean that even more time, money and skills were ploughed into the British commercial and Royal Navies. The more and better the British ships became the more she took the worlds trade and the faster she developed into the worlds preeminent naval power.By the middle to end of the eighteenth century, the British could claim to have the largest and most successful naval forces in the world Both militarily and commercially. By this time, naval traditions, experience and expertise had been fully augmented by advances in science and the latest industrial products and techniques. British ships were familiar sites to ports and coastal regions the world over. However, two events would test this combine and confidence in the maritime forces of the nation.Soon, the British would realise that although they were a match for any nation on even terms, a combination of forces might lead to her undoing. The first test of this theory was the American War of Independence. French and Spanish involvement in supplying and maintaining the insurrection. Combine this with Royal Naval ships and sailors fighting on the side of the colonists and the British could see that they were not as invincible as they would have liked to have believed. However, the real tes t of the strength and importance of the Naval forces of Britain was to come with the rise of Napoleon on the European continent.A brilliant tactician and strategist, Napoleon swept most of Europe before him. As he took strong control over these powers he also took control of their navies. The British tried their best to thwart these plans with some success in Holland and especially Denmark. However, the Spanish and French fleets combined again to form a most formidable force. Unlike the days of the American War of Independence, it was clear that the only way the British could get by with the threat of Napoleon was to con effort and defeat this dark blue in an open battle. The stakes for the island nation had not been higher since the days of Drake and the Spanish Armada. Fortunately for the British, a new hero rose to the hour. Admiral Nelson successfully defeated the combined fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. He paid for this victory with his life, but he laid down a sense of se curity for the island nation that would remain intact for another century. Although disappointments and setbacks did occur, most notably in the War of 1812-14, essentially the Royal Navy returned to being the preeminent maritime nation.Indeed, the only serious threat to the Royal and merchandiser Navies were the sailors, captains and admirals themselves. Complacency and a lack of serious rivals meant that the British maritime forces lay essentially unchanged for most of the nineteenth century. Half a century after the decease of Nelson and the Royal Navy had barely changed at all even the ships were the same. The only serious innovation that made serious in highroads into these traditions was the advent of steam.Even then, the Admiralty were reluctant converts to this latest technology and pined for the days of sail. It would be left to commercial forces and entrepreneurs to explore and develop this means of power. The most important name associated with these developments is that of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. This man built the first steamship to cross the Atlantic the Great Western. The first ocean screw steamer the Great Britain. And what for 40 years would be the largest ship ever built the Great east. And although these ships were not the greatest of commercial triumphs the combination of ingenuity, expertise and industrial technology would mean that Britain would remain at the forefront of maritime power for some time to come.Steam power would open up other avenues for exploration that had previously been difficult if not impossible for mariners to pursue. The ability to power a vessel upstream would mean that many of the worlds rivers could be open up to European explorers and traders. This would allow for new parts of the world to be explored and new commerical and political relationships to be established. Africa would see this technology employed along its many rivers. Indeed, steamships would even be taken terrestrial to operate on the great lakes of the African interior.One side effect of the introduction of steampower was that coaling stations would become a strategic necessity to the Royal and Merchant Navies. All of a sudden, the Royal Navy became concerned at the placement of Naval bases particularly with regards to how far a ship could steam before it needed refuelling. This new strategic thinking would be augmented and amended by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The world was becoming a smaller place at a rapid rate and maritime necessities would be prime in consideration for much of the Imperial expansion of the day.Cash crops would be the new notes cows that provided the financial impetus for maritime ventures at the Imperial level. Tea, cotton, rubber, even opium would all take their turn in providing the imperatives and returns in investing in Britains maritime fleets. Combine these financial considerations with regular British trade patterns with Europe, Latin America and the United states and the fact tha t populations were willing and able to move about the planet in unprecedented numbers and the importance of ships and maritime policy to the British Empire is easy to comprehend.The next dispute to British supremacy of the waves was to be by the Germans. By the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries European and imperial rivalries combined to form ominous and powerful blocks of nations. On one side lay the French and Russians, on the other the Germans, Italians and Austrians. Britain tried to remain aloof for as long as possible, but when the Germans say that they wanted a Navy that was the equal of the Royal Navy, the gauntlet had been laid and the British joined with the French and Russians. A naval arms race between the British and Germans was proving costly to both countries, it didnt help matters when one of Britains own innovations nearly bankrupted the nation. The development of the Battleship Dreadnought in 1906 kept the British at the front of Naval technology but at the cost of making their entire existing fleet obsolescent. The Germans would slowly be able to catch up to the British with this new technology and, if it hadnt been for competing claims on the German military budget, might have succeeded in doing so.As it was, during The Great War, the British were just able to keep up of the Germans and successfully bottled them up in their Baltic ports for most of the war. However, another military development would provide strong worries and portents enough for the British. The submarine did not effect the war as much as their German commanders had hoped, but their potential for disrupting existing Naval balances of power were clear to all. These concerns would be played out at a much more lethal level during the next war.Meanwhile, the interwar period saw cutbacks to both the Royal and Merchant Navies. With little appetite left for armed forces, British politicians cut back defence expenditure on all of the services. The Royal Navy was no exception. These cutbacks came just as new maritime rivals could be seen on the horizon. During The Great War, the Americans had turned their massive industrial might to outfitting her armed forces in a very short period of time. At the same time, the Japanese had been left unchallenged to develop in the pacific naval.When the war ended they quickly sought to establish some kind of parity with the Royal Navy the result was the Washington crowd. This conference established the so called 553 ratios for capital ships. America and Britain were to be equal in size and number of ships whilst the Japan maintained 60% of these numbers. The effect of the conference was that Britain, for the first time since Drake, admitted that she would only be the equal of another power. No longer would she aim to be the preeminent naval power. In reality, she had also given the Japanese a local superiority in the Pacific region. A superiority the Japanese would use to dismember m uch of the British Asian Empire.The Second World War was to put Britain in as much, if not more, peril than in the first. Her naval commanders justifiedly identified submarine warfare as being the biggest threat the island nation. The Royal and Merchant Navies took horrendous losses as these commanders developed ways of dealing with this silent menace. Convoys and ASDIC did most to redress this balance. But it was a long, hard fight and one that left Britain militarily and economically exhausted by the end of the war.Britain would neer reclaim its former maritime glory. The United States and Soviet Navies would eclipse the Royal Navy in size, technology and power. Aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines and the rise of Air Power in general would mean that the strategic balance had been reorient forever. Withdrawal from Empire speeded up this process even more, bases in the Far East, South East Asia, the plaza East and even the Mediterranean seemed like expensive anachronisms that no longer served any purpose. At a commercial level, the rise of air transport killed off much of the passenger business of the shipping lines. Also, new trade patterns were established as Imperial trade was re fixed by much shorter European destinations.The fall from boon of the British naval heritage is only so precipitate when you realise how long and how deep that tradition has been the lifeblood of the nation. Generations of citizens grew up with the unquestioning belief that Britannia Ruled the Waves. Now that she is a middle ranking European nation, it is not hard to see why so many people lament the passing of an era and why it inspires so many more to be fascinated and interested in this area of British history.communicationsThe telegraph system was one of the technological wonders of the nineteenth century. It transformed communications in a intelligent way and helped to give the British Army a technological superiority over most of her competitors. Its invention was a product of the enthusiasm and skill of industrial revolutionary Britain. William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone, a scientist and an entrepreneur, teamed up to forge a devastatingly effective alliance that combined the savvy of both individuals to produce the needle telegraph. Wheatstone came up with the technological smell whilst the Cooke had the foresight to approach the railway companies in order to run their lines along side the railway tracks. On 25 July 1837 the first experimental line with the new telegraph was started.The Great Western Railway club connected the stations Euston Square and Camden Town over a distance of 2.4 kilometres. It was an outstanding success that not only amazed Victorians but displayed obvious applications for its use. When it was used to broadcast such news as the accept of Queen Victorias second son, or to catch a murderer who had attempted an escape by train, its bankers acceptance and usefulness was plain for all to see. In fact, the only problem with this initial invention was that it the code to sway messages was rather cumbersome and in fact only twenty letters were used of the alphabet. Credit for the reducing of the both the hardware and code was to cross the Atlantic to a certain Samuel Morse.Samuel Morse had a delegation in life. A devout Christian, his world had turned upside down when he missed the funeral of his wife due to a message being delivered late. He never wanted anyone to go through the pain that he had endured and so set about perfecting an easy to use message system. His revolution centred around the predilection of trip outing pulses of electricity of two fixed lengths dots and dashes. The subsequent morse code was so much easier to for all to master. He too saw the logic in following the railroad lines and telegraph poles continued their close relationships to the railway lines that were gradually spreading out over the continents of the world. Of course, there were larger scale bou ndaries that also needed crossing.Crossing the Atlantic Ocean with a submarine telegraph line was one of the holy grails of Victorian technological advances. So much so that Sirus Field, a very rich American businessman, personally financed the hiring of two warships, one American and one British (USS Buchanan and HMS Victoria), to simply start in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and pull the wire to the opposing sides of the Atlantic. After a couple of attempts, they did indeed manage to succeed in their endeavour.The President of the United States and Queen Victoria managed to exchange pleasantries crossways all those thousands of miles. Unfortunately, the line only worked for just over two weeks. The Victorian scientists had not anticipated the high voltages that were required to send messages across those thousands of miles. The furrow simply burnt out. It would be seven years before the line was reconnected. The problem being that the new, low voltage, well insulated wires w ere just too thick for any ship to be able to carry. Until, that was, the SS Great Eastern was launched. This was a behemoth of a ship that dwarfed all other ships by its size and speed. In 1866 she slow connected the two continents together.Submarine telegraph lines were now spreading across the world as the British government realised the full potential for governing and communicating with its far flung empire. By 1890, of the inhabited British territories, only Fiji, British Honduras, Tobago, the Falkland Islands, Turks Islands and New Guinea had no cable at all. The importance that Britain personally invested in this world wide infrastructure is borne out by the statistic that by 1914, 75% of all the worlds submarine lines were held by the British. Indeed, within hours of the outbreak of the First World War, the first action taken by any of the British and Imperial Forces around the world was actually taken in Melbourne in Australia. A German merchant ship was fired on by coast al batteries as she attempted to leave port. The fact that this took place on the exact opposite side of the world illustrates how much smaller the empire had become with the advent of telegraphy.Before the advent of this technology, the British government had had to entrust a great deal of local powers to its representatives across the world. When it took three months for a message to travel from a colony back to the capital, waiting for a repartee was a luxury that frequently could not be tolerated. The man on the spot was a very powerful figure indeed. With the advent of the telegraph, London could have virtually instant(prenominal) contact with the capitals of her colonies and dominions and conduct business from afar.Cables Being Laid in CanadaThe value of Britains world wide telegraphic system actually contributed to Britains strategic worries. The cables were kept in British colonies or under British controlled seas as much as possible, but this was not always avoidable. Whe never this occurred the British worried about interceptions of messages or of cutting the link altogether. For example, the link to Australia passed over Dutch Java, the South American cable ran through Portugese Madeira, but probably the biggest headache of all to Britains strategic thinkers was the cable that ran from London to Calcutta. In fact, there were three such cables.One ran from Lowestoft to Germany, through Russia, Persia and in to India. isolated from the strategic nightmares of this essential line of communication was the fact that the Germans and Russians were in a position to keep the cost of using this cable artificially high. The second cable was not much better. It ran across Europe to Constantinople, across Turkey to the Persian Gulf and then by cable to Karachi. Little reliance could be placed on the Ottoman empire. The third cable ran from London to Gibraltar to Malta, Egypt to Aden and then on to Bombay. This looked secure enough, but still relied on using Sp anish relay stations to boost the signals. Besides, it was generally more economic to send the messages up over France from Malta.To add to the strategic difficulties the vagaries of the currents and weather caused yet further headaches. Storms, winds, silt, even fishermen could all minutely disrupt the sending of messages. Combined with the distances involved, it is little wonder the tariffs could be so high. 4 shillings per word to India, and 6s. 9d. to Australia. And yet, the British were convinced that the value of the system was worth the price. All over the world, Englishmen were employed laying or maintaining cables or operating booster stations along the line. The cable manager often became a key member of society for the further flung outposts of imperial society. In Australia, Alice Springs actually came to life as the central station for the overland 2000 mile Telegraph line stretching from Adelaide to the North. These 36,000 telegraph poles were built years before any r oad or railway line crossed the continent. And it could be dangerous too. In 1874, two cable men were speared to death by Aborigines.The laying and maintaining of this enormous network must rank as one of the most important achievements of the British Empire. Its scope and utility is hard to imagine in a world where instantaneous communications are taken for granted. Before the invention of the Telegraph the speed of communication had changed little since the time of the Romans. Within thirty years of the first twitchings of Cooks and Wheatstones needle telegraph, the world had been made substantially smaller.