Sunday, March 31, 2019

In Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlehem

In Sidaway v poster of G e preciseplacenors of the BethlehemIn Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlehem Royal hospital 1984 1 exclusively ER 1018 Dunn LJ stated in the Court of Appeal that &aposthe concept of in bring in apply plays no part in English fairness&apos (per Dunn LJ at 1030). Is this as yet an accurate reflection of the legality? In Sidaway, the plaintiff brought an fulfil against the hospital and surgeon who fareed an operation on her dressing. The operation she had lowg ace carried an inherent endangerment to her spinal anesthesia anesthesia column and nerve roots. up to now if it was performed perfectly, there was still astir(predicate) a two per cent chance that she would suffer injury to her spinal column. As it turned out, the operation was performed correctly, but nevertheless, the plaintiff suffered injury to her spinal column. She brought an action for negligence based solely on the ground that she had non been warned of the inherent ris kinesss of the occasion and that she would non have consented to the operation had she been so informed. It was make in fact at the trial that the surgeon failed to inform the plaintiff that the operation was not demand and was actu whollyy optional. It was also represent that eyepatch she had been warned of the risk of damage to the nerve roots, she had not been warned of the less plausibly, but potenti completelyy to a greater extent serious, risk to the spinal column. It was also undertakeed that had the plaintiff been certified of these facts she would not have undergone the surgery. However, the trial judge also found that the telephone circuit the surgeon had taken was backed by a amenable automobile trunk of medical examination reliance and so, applying the test formulated in Bolam v Friern hospital centering Committee 1957 1 WLR 582, the monetary standard of c ar that the surgeon owed the longanimous had been enterd. This ruling was upheld by the Cour t of Appeal and made its way to the mob of schoolmasters, where Dunn LJs quotation in the title is taken from.The House of schoolmasters, by applying the Bolam test, also upheld the judgment on the ground that if a responsible organic structure of medical vox populi supported a course of action, this was adapted to discharge the duty of care owed to a affected aim by a dilute. However, the logical thinking in the grimace on the issue of informed consent is precise enlightening.The first point to note is that Lord Scarman was the sole dissenting opinion in the cocktail dress. Lord Scarman was of the opinion that,the posits duty arises from his diligents boreds. If one considers the scope of the physicians duty by beginning with the safe of the tolerant to make his own decision whether he will or will not undergo the treatment proposed, the right to be informed of signifi fuckingt risk and the doctors identical duty are easy to understand for the proper impleme ntation of the right requires that the doctor be under a duty to inform his persevering of the material risks inherent in the treatment.(p. 888)Lord Scarmans terminal therefore was that the law recognizes a right of a enduring of sound judgment to be warned of material risks save in exceptional circumstances.This was not however the date of the other judges. Lord Bridge of Harwich for example, gave three reasons why the imposition of such(prenominal) a duty on forbearings would not be practical under English law. The first is that it would fail to take into account the reality of the doctor enduring relationship in m each spaces. The doctor bases his decision to issuing a certain course of treatment on a revolution of factors and it would be impractical to call him to educate the persevering of the full implications of all of these factors. In fact, doing so may increase the trauma and stress of almost patients. Secondly, the indecision of whether disclosure of tuit ion should have been made in any quality would be best answered by reference to expert medical opinion on a case by case base of operations and not as a full general rule applicable to all cases. Thirdly, Lord Bridge thought it would be impossible in practice for a court to apply a subjective test to the enquiry of what was a material risk that a patient should have been informed of, and what was an immaterial risk that would not require disclosure. This subjective test being one present forward in the American case of Canterbury v Spence (1972) 464 F. 2d 772. The statement of Dunn LJ quoted above was firmly upheld in the House of Lords.Sidaway however, was a case intractable in 1984 and 1985. Massive advancements have been made twain in the standard of medical care provided by doctors, and the requirements of the law in this field, in the intervening years. Therefore, it falls to be discussed, does the principal in Sidaway still apply?Perhaps the best out pay back place for such a discussion would be to take up Lord Scarmans nest, quoted above, of looking at the right of the patient. The first right that all of us have, dating back to the early sources of the common law, is the right to bodily integrity. This right is so perforate in our law that it can rarely be violated, even with the dupes consent. As Swift J stated in the case of R v Donovan 1934 2 KB 498 at 507, when it comes to violation of the teaching of bodily integrity, consent is immaterial. Furtherto a greater extent, for the most part, the motive of the violator is often impertinent and even the good intentions of a doctor will not rationalize a violation of the principle. In the American case of Schloendorff v connection of upstart York Hospital 105 NE 92 (NY, 1914) Cardozo J put it distinctlyly when he said that a surgeon who performs an operation without the patients consent commits an assault, This position has been affirmed in England in A-Gs file name extension (No 6 of 1 980) 1981 QB 715 where it was clearly asserted that it is the patients consent alone, and not the good motives of the doctor or any other cosmos interest that make a doctors interference with the patient lawful.However, absolute as the twin principles of bodily integrity and patient consent appear, there are a number of exceptions in practice. The law distinguishes instinctive treatment, that is treatment that the patient does not consent to, from non-voluntary treatment, that is treatment that the patient is futile to consent to because he is for example unconscious or otherwise unavailing to provide valid consent. One justification for non-voluntary treatment is that the patient is presumed to consent, as it is extremely likely that he would have done so had he been conscious. This approach however, does not have universal academic support (Mitchell, 1995). The more favoured justification comes from the law of necessity, which recognizes the need to act in an emergency, notw ithstanding the fact that the necessary consent has not been obtained (Skegg, 1974). The requirements for this exception to apply are that the patient is unable to consent, that there is no one capable of consenting on his behalf, that there is genuine urgency and that there are no know objections to treatment from the patient (In re Boyd, 403 A2d 744 (DC 1979)). The basic approach has been summed up compactly by Lord Devlin (1962 p. 90) where he said The Good Samaritan is a slip unesteemed in English law. The principle has been developed further by the Canadian Supreme Court which has developed a distinction between procedures which are necessary and procedures which are convenient. While a doctor may be reassert in performing a necessary procedure without consent, to perform a merely convenient one would be beyond what he is authorized to do.Two colourful Canadian cases illustrate the distinction well. The first, Marhsall v Curry 1933 3 DLR 260, concerns a case where a doctor u pstage a testicle during the course of a hernia operation. While the patient was naturally dismayed to wake up to the discovery, the court held that the doctor had been justified in acting as he had because of the nature of the patients condition and the fact that the operation could not have been regarded as prospered but for the doctors decision. This case is contrasted with that of Murray v McMurchy 1949 2 DLR 442 in which the doctor tied a defective fallopian tube during the course of a caesarian section. This was held to have been convenient as the woman would have been at risk, had she undergone several(prenominal) other pregnancy, and a separate operation to tie the tube could be avoided by performing the procedure now. However, the court found that the operation was not necessary in the legal guts and therefore a ravish of the patients right. The relevance of these cases to English law was affirmed by the Court of Appeal in Devi v West national regional Health Author ity 1981 CA 491 which followed the Canadian courts reasoning.It should also be clearly noted that the consent of the patient, and the principle of patient autonomy takes precedence over any arguments of medical paternalism. This fact was stated in the two highly publicized and controversial cases of Re T (adult refusal of medical treatment) 1992 4 every ER 649 and Airedale NHS Trust v Bland 1993 1 All ER 821.Also, where a doctor acts without any consent at all, law sees this site as appropriate for a charge of battery. This will be the case where a doctor proceeds to act on a patient, despite the fact that the patient has put forwardly refused the treatment (Molloy v skim interpret 1935 1 WWR 714). It is also the case where the doctor proceeds to provide a patient with treatment that is materially different from the treatment that the patient consented to. This was the case in Schweizer v Central Hospital (1974) 53 DLR (3D) 494 where a patient consented to a toe operation, and the surgeon subsequently operated on the patients back.This is therefore. The starting position that led Lord Scarman to dissent from his colleagues in the Sidaway judgment. It is clear that the principle of bodily integrity is given the highest level of respect and surety under English law. Lord Scarman was saying that in order for a patient to mould and enforce this right, he had to be informed of the details, risks and nature of a medical procedure. Further to this, Lord Scarman also was of the opinion that if a patient gave his consent without being properly informed of the risks and nature of the procedure he was consenting to, then this consent was in an important sense defective. This is the nature of the principle of informed consent, and requires that in order for a patients consent to be effective, and in order for a doctor to be able to properly act on it, the patient essential have understood what he was consenting to.Sidaway was clearly a decision that spurned the c oncept of informed consent. This was recognized in Canada where the courts expressly refused to follow the decision and instead opted for upholding the informed consent requirement. One example of umteen is that of Haughian v Paine 1987 4 WWR 97 in which the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal decided not to follow Sidaway and instead ruled that a doctor had been inattentive in performing an operation for which the patient had not been told the consequences of undergoing no treatment at all. This case followed quickly on the heals of Sidaway.However, as late as 1997, academics in England were still confidently asserting that English law does not recognize the dogma of informed consent (Grundy, 1997 p. 211). However, by this time, the attention had shifted to another principle in English law that was providing patients with a choice. This principle can also be traced to the Sidaway decision, the very case that rejected the application of informed consent in England. In his dissenting jud gment, Lord Scarman said (at p. 884),Unless statute has intervened to restrict the range of judge-made law, the common law enables the judges, when confront with a situation where a right recognized by the law is not adequately protected, either to extend existing principles to cover the situation or to apply an existing remedy to redress the injustice.It is this principle of the law that has been leading to significant inroads being created into the Bolam test in the context of the development given to a patient to enable him or her to make a decision. The view of Lord Bridge that it would be impractical to expect the doctor to explain absolutely everything to the patient, has in fact been flipped on its head, and the prevailing supposition now seems to be that it would be un intelligent for the patient to explain the whole circumstances of his life, medical, social, economic and otherwise, that would be necessary to make a very informed decision and that therefore, it is the p atient who is in a far break in position to make the best decision based on the reading available.Even in Sidaway a pure Bolam approach was being compromised. twain Lord Bridge and Lord Keith were of the opinion that,When questioned specifically by a patient of apparently sound mind virtually risks involved in a particular treatment proposed, the doctors duty mustiness, in my opinion, be to answer both truthfully and as fully as the question requires (per Lord Bridge at 898).If one was to think about this statement in practice, it is in fact a lot more significant a compromise than it may seem. In reality, it is extremely likely that the vast majority of patients would ask their doctor a large number of questions concerning the risks and relative benefits of different courses. It would be a rare patient these long time who would see a doctor, hear of a course of recommended treatment, and then accept it unquestioningly. The easy availability of medical information, and access to education and awareness of applicable issues has been promoted in the last couple of decades to the standard where patients are likely to be highly informed on their conditions and the options available to them, and they will certainly expect to engage in a frank discussion with their doctor on the courses of treatment available. It could almost be assumed, that in cases where a patient did not ask about the risks of a procedure of his doctor, either he had sufficient knowledge and consented to the doctors approach, or abrogated his right to further information in favour of accepting the doctors assessment.The second inroad contained in Sidaway itself was asserted by Lords Bridge, Templeman and Keith to the effect that (per Lord Bridge at 900),Even in a case where, as here, no expert protest in the relevant medical field contends the non-disclosure as being in conflict with accepted and responsible medical practice, I am of the opinion that the Judge might in certain circumsta nces come to the conclusion that disclosure of a particular risk was so obviously necessary to an informed choice on the part of the patient that no moderately prudent medical man would fail to make it.Combined with the antecedently mentioned inroad, the two conditions together provide significant safeguards to the patients right to meaningfully consent. Even if the patient fails to touch on serious issues and risks in his own research, or conversation with the doctor, the doctor is also under an debt instrument to raise of his own initiative, particular risk that are obviously necessary for an informed choice on the part of the patient. Without actually using the phrase, the standard that the court was setting out in Sidaway was in fact starting to sound quite close to the concept of informed consent, at least for the vast majority of cases, in practice.As identified by Gurndy (1997 p. 213) the approach adopted in Sidaway is in fact a limited form of informed consent, for it ackn owledges thata patients right of decision should be recognized and respectedwhere the patient undergoes an operation involving a substantial risk of grave adverse consequences a doctor failing to disclose such risk would be negligent save for circumstances where there was some cogent clinical reason why the patient should not be informed.Since Sidaway therefore, there have been a number of cases highlighting the importance of the patients right to know, and putting the Bolam test into a subsidiary role as merely one of a number of factors that should be taken into account. In Blyth v Bloomsbury Health Authority 1993 4 Med LR 151 (per Kerr LJ at 157) it was said,The question of what a plaintiff should be told in answer to a general enquiry cannot be divorced from the Bolam test any more than when no such enquiry is made. In both cases the answer must await upon the circumstances, the nature of the enquiry, the nature of the information which is available, its reliability, relevance, the condition of the patient and so forth.Without creating an express right to all information that is available, the court was saying that Bolam is just one of the factors that are relevant in questions of this type. In Smith v Turnbirdge surface Health Authority 1994 5 Med LR 334 (per Mr. Justice Morland at 399) the court went against Bolam when it said,By 1988 although some surgeons may still not have been warning patients same in situation to the plaintiff of the risk of impotence, that omission was neither reasonable nor responsible.Therefore, despite passing the Bolam test, the defendants failed on the grounds of a reasonable and responsible test. In Moyes v Lothian Health Board 1990 1 Med LR 463 the court found that the overarching test was whether the doctor has aimn reasonable care for the safety of his patient. In Abbas v Kenney 1996 7 Med LR 47 the court stated thatA doctor has a duty to explain what he intends to do and the implications of what he is going to do. It must be explained in such a way that the patient can understand.Therefore, to conclude, it is possible to say that while the courts purport to be applying the Bolam test, as set out in Sidaway, the fact of the matter is that they are actually run on principles much closer to a practical understanding of a modified form of informed consent. There are numerous cases that show that the mere fact that a body of professional opinion would not have disclosed certain information will not be enough for a doctor to avoid a finding of negligence. At the same time, there are numerous judicial statements to the effect that doctors must inform their patients of the basic information necessary in order for them to exercise their right to consent. Therefore, while in theory there is no doctrine of informed consent in English law, the practical approach, stemming from Sidaway and subsequent practice, is that a modified doctrine of informed consent does prevail in English law, and any doctors who i gnored this fact would be standing on very shaky legal ground. Reference ListTexts and ArticlesBeauchamp Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 3rd ed. 1990, CambridgeBuchanan Brock, deciding for Others, 1989, capital of the United KingdomCampbell, Moral Dilemmas in Medicine, 3rd ed. 1984, Oxford University PressCastiglioni, A memorial of Medicine, trans and ed E B Krunghaar, 2nd ed. 1947Fulford, Moral Theory and aesculapian Practice, 1989, OxfordGrundy, P., Bolam, Sidaway and the Unrecognised Doctrine of Informed Consent A Fresh Approach, (1997) JPIL, Dec. 211Lord Devlin, Samples in Law Making, (1962) Oxford University Press, OxfordMason McCall Smith, Law and Medical Ethics, 4th ed. 1994, Butterowrths, LondonMitchell, J., A Fundamental Problem of Consent (1995) 310 BMJ 43Skegg, A., A plea for Medical Procedures Performed without Consent, (19740 90 LQR 512CasesAbbas v Kenney 1996 7 Med LR 47A-Gs Reference (No 6 of 1980) 1981 QB 715Airedale NHS Trust v Bland 1993 1 All ER 821Blyth v Bloomsbury Health Authority 1993 4 Med LR 151Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee 1957 1 WLR 582Canterbury v Spence (1972) 464 F. 2d 772Devi v West Midland Regional Health Authority 1981 CA 491Haughian v Paine 1987 4 WWR 97In re Boyd, 403 A2d 744 (DC 1979)Marhsall v Curry 1933 3 DLR 260Molloy v Hop Sang 1935 1 WWR 714Moyes v Lothian Health Board 1990 1 Med LR 463Murray v McMurchy 1949 2 DLR 442R v Donovan 1934 2 KB 498Re T (adult refusal of medical treatment) 1992 4 All ER 649Schloendorff v Society of New York Hospital 105 NE 92 (NY, 1914)Schweizer v Central Hospital (1974) 53 DLR (3D) 494Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlehem Royal Hospital 1984 1 alone ER 1018Smith v Turnbirdge Wells Health Authority 1994 5 Med LR 334

Antibody Level After Hepatitis B Vaccination in Hemodialysis

Antibody Level After Hepatitis B Vaccination in haemodialysisABSTRACTOBJECTIVEThe objective of this try was to determine the antibody level aft(prenominal) Hepatitis B vaccination in chronic hemodialysis patients.METHOD all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) at the dialysis unit of Liaquat National Hospital, fulfilling the inclusion and excommunication criteria were enrolled between April 2013 and September 2013, after taking informed consent. AntiHbs (Hepatitis B cake antibody) titers were measured. Patients were dissententiated as Immune and non tolerant based on antibody titers, with levels of 10 IU/l being considered as resistive and levels of RESULTSOut of 118 patients enrolled, 103 (87.3%) had an adequate antibody reaction and were considered immune while only 15 patients (12.7%) had an inadequate antibody repartee rendering them non immune.AntiHbs titers showed no significant co-relation with knowledgeable practice and duration of haemodialysis therapy (p0 .05), while come along was engraft to waste significant correlation as younger age pigeonholing (CONCLUSIONOur study showed a very good Antibody response to Hepatitis B vaccination among hemodialysis patients that correlated with age with younger age grouping having a better response unless no correlation to gender and duration of dialysis.KEYWORDSHepatitis B virus, Anti-HBs antibody, haemodialysis, Prevalence, Vaccination.INTRODUCTIONHepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission is a common but avoidable distemper. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a deoxyribonucleic acid virus that can be communicated via saliva, body fluids, semen, vaginal fluids, blood products, sexual contacts or prenatally influencing 350-400 million persons round the globe (1-3). In contrast to worldwide population, hemodialysis patients argon at higher risk of acquiring Hepatitis B Virus because of direct depiction to blood products, shared hemodialysis devices, phonograph needle pricks and hemodialysis process which involve access to blood circulation.(4) Hence, Hemodialysis patients are vulnerable to infections with Hepatitis B Virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus in hemodialysis (HD) patients varies significantly between countries, ranging from minimal in developed countries to very high in some developing countries. condescension the fact that many steps baffle been taken for the pr even offtion of HBV infection like mass vaccination programs, implementation of thorough blood donor screening, awareness encouragement programs of erythropoietin use and generalize availability in hemodialysis centers, Hepatitis B Virus infection remains a major forethought in Hemodialysis centers majorly in developing countries (5). Patients who are on forethought hemodialysis are considered as high-risk group, resulting in high relative incidence and mortality. Therefore, to vaccinate them against the virus is mandatory. Compared to a response tempo of over 90% i n the normal population, only 50 to 60% of those with end-stage renal disease achieve adequate antibody levels pursual immunization (6, 7). Various tactics have been employed to overcome the low seroconversion rate like co-administering zinc, gamma-interferon, thymopentin, interleukin-2, and levamisole as immunostimulants or adjuvants as well as changing the injection mode (intradermal versus intramuscular) or doubling the vaccine dose (7, 8).Low immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients on HD is noticed in several studies but has never been studied in our population. Therefore our aim is to conduct a study in our population to determine the serum Anti-Hbs levels in these patients following vaccination.MATERIAL METHODSFrom April 2013 to September 2013, 118 patients undergoing HD in Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College were screened for anti-HBs. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and duration of HD. All patients were include in HD unit w ho underwent primary vaccination within last virtuoso year (four doses recombinant HB vaccine 40 ug, i.m, at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months). Exclusion criteria included patients on immunosuppressive drugs, malignancy or human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA,Biokit, Spain) was used to measure Anti-HBs antibodies titers. The data was canvas by SPSS for windows (version 14.0 Chicago, IL, USA). A p value RESULTSWe enrolled total of 118 patients on Hemodialysis who were recently vaccinated. Demographics are shown in Figure 1.Patients age ranged from 20-71 long time. 46.6 %( N=55) were Male with mean age 53.2 10.02 yrs and 53.1 %( N=63) were Females with mean climb on of 51.59 10.63 yrs. Age was found to have significant impact on Hepatitis B rear antibody titer with patients 0.05). Out of 118 patients, 15 (12.7%) were found to have Inadequate response or Non-immune, where as, 104 (87.3%) had an Adequate response and responded well to the immu nization. eon on Hemodialysis ranges from 1-4 yr with mean duration of 1.970.77 years, most of the patients had less than 3 years of Hemodialysis 97.5% (N=115/118) and only 3 patients (2.5%) were in year 4. Duration of Hemodialysis failed to show any significant impact on Hepatitis B vaccination response rate (p0.05).DISCUSSIONAn increased risk of exposure to HBV infection is ascertained in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (9) It has been observed that after vaccination for Hepatitis B, hemodialysis patients develop lower antibody titers compared to healthy individuals, and even if they are immunized, their antibody titers falls shortly within a year(10).The present study showed a very high response to hepatitis-B vaccination among hemodialysis patients. integrity hundred and four (87.6%) patients showed good antibody response after vaccination. Previous studies in hemodialysis patients have shown a variable hepatitis-B vaccination response rate, ranging from 47%-73%.(11-13).C omparable good results to hepatitis-B vaccination in hemodialysis patients had also been observed in areas with intermediate endemicity (2-8%) prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus ,such as in brazil-nut tree , which approached 89.5% in one study.(14)A recent meta-analysis of 17 clinical trials showed diminish response to hepatitis-B vaccination among older dialysis patients(15) which might be attributed to age associated changes to immune status, where older was defined at age 50 yrs. Our patients mean age were 52.310.04 yrs correlating with Meta analysis age group, and our results are similar with older patients having less immune response.(11, 16, 17)In the present study, gender and duration of hemodialysis therapy did not have any correlation to hepatitis-B vaccination. These results are in agreement with those reported by Peces et al .(18).Dacko et al.(16) and Tele et al(14).Similarly, Roozbeh et al(19) also confirmed the same results and showed that gender did not differ between r esponders (immune) and non-responders (non-immune) to hepatitis-B vaccination.CONCLUSIONWe report a very good response to hepatitis-B vaccination among hemodialysis patients that is neither co-relating with gender or duration of hemodialysis. This was a preliminary study in our population which only estimated the response rate against vaccination. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of nutrional status and adequateness of hemodialysis on the response rate of vaccination as antecedent studies has shown their influences over titer levels.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Best Ideology To Achieve The Common Good Politics Essay

The Best political orientation To Achieve The Common Good Politics EssayIs thither a best ideology to discover the common good? Throughout centuries there brace been different ideologies that have been put in place to avow concourse of different nations. History has sh give that most ideologies such as socialism, Fascism, and Socialism, have all failed do to the fact that it imposes a strong restriction upon population. This is factual, as news report has shown in the downfall of the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany in their treacherous agencys of examineling its people. see the light liberalism, Classical liberalism, and conservatism atomic number 18 ideologies that guarantees people foresweardom and democracy save there be many criticisms that be these philosophies. This essay will analyse all the six ideologies that persisted throughout write up and too in instantlys guild, just come to a expiration on what ideology specifically works best for the conditions co njunction faces in this mod day and age.Communism is a system in which close prop has been replaced by collective or communal ownership and in which everyone would be guiltless to take from society what they need (Mintz et al, p.114). Modern day Communism is based on the writings of two German economists, Karl Marx and Fred well-fixed Engels. Karl Marx saw history as the story of kind-hearted labour and struggle. Friedrich Engel a friend of Marx was a big critic of capitalist prudence. Their partnership and ideas gave birth to what we know as communism. Communism, a branch of socialism, is a social system, characterized by lack of secluded station. The union as a whole owns the means of production and thus the clear is shared equally with everyone. In theory, labour would be divided up among all citizens according to ability and interest and resources would be distributed according to need. at that place would also be no ruler, no president, king, or dictator. The assump tion is that private ownership of prop somehow corrupts humans, making them greedy, selfish, arrogant and uncooperative. Communism be double-dealingves that human nature is determined by external social and frugal relations, so if the community is fair and equal, people will automatically be more than kind, virtuous and unselfish (Sheldon, p.66).Fascism is a political theory that emphasizes a coordinated powerful state to which all individuals and groups submit (Sheldon, p.102). The buffer fascist consummation was that of Italian draw Benito Mussolini in Italy, organized in March 1921,although its origins lie in the first cosmos war and ,more deeply , in the reason reaction against liberalism which began in the latter half of the nineteenth century (Bogdanor,p.227). sad with the liberal emphasis on the individual and with the socialist emphasis on contending social classes, the fascist provided a view of the world in which individuals and classes were to intent into an all embracing whole a mighty empire to a lower place the control of a single party and a supreme leader (Ball et al.p.173). Nazism is a version of fascism associated with Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader of Germany, emphasizing racial conflict and the superiority of the Aryan race (Mintz et al, p.117). In most honour Nazism in Germany closely resembled Fascism in Italy. Both had a iniquity for liberalism and communism. For Hitler and his followers, the essential fact of human life is that human beings belong to different races. There is no such thing as a popular human nature, in their view, because the differences that distinguish one race from another prick each race for a different role or bunch in the world. The swift destruction of fascist states and philosophy after realness War II ended this ideology, except in Spain where it continued into the 1970s. Latin American countries such as Argentina with close ties to Germany and Spain had fascist war machine governance but lack ed the influence of European fascist regimes (Sheldon, p.103).Socialism is an stinting and social system and ideology that denies the absolute individual right to private property ownership and insists that society as a whole (or its state) should control production and distribution of wealth (Bogadanor, p.487). Socialist theory is often contrasted with capitalism developed in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries in reply to industrialism. Socialist theories and systems varied widely over the extent of private property and trade allowed, the state management of the economy, and the community regulation of individual behavior advocated and an agricultural commune style of society focused on god, quid industrial production, social democracy blends private entrepreneurship with state regulation for the economy and state ownership of key industries (e.g., telecommunications and transportation) (Sheldon, p.280). The main premise of socialism is that people will work harder and b e more creative, kind, and happy if all their basic material needs are taken care of by society. repossess Liberalism is a version of liberalism that combines support for individual freedom with a popular opinion that government action may be needed to help ask obstacles to individual development (Mintz et al, p.104). But reform liberalism maintains that government is not exactly necessary evil. On the contrary, properly directed government can be a positive strength for encouraging individual independence by ensuring that everyone enjoys an equal opportunity in life. Reform liberalism argues that government should play a role in assisting the disadvantage through such measures as involvement insurance, old age pensions, healthcare, and education. This will create a proper way of freedom for the less fortunate and it will ensure that a nominal standard of living is available to everyone. Reform liberalism also argues that property rights may need to be limited, to some extent in order to advance the rights and freedom of others. An example would a freedom of a factory owner may need to be limited by the government regulations in order to protect labourers from unsafe working conditions, consumers from harmful products, and the environment from the top of pollutants (Mintz et al,p.105). Reform liberalists think authority should be used to support free trade, but also protect the parts of society that are vulnerable. They study that governments should facilitate redistribution. In all reform liberalism is based on the apprehension that everyone is equal when it comes to opportunity.Classical Liberalism is a form of liberalism that emphasizes the desirability for limited government and the free marketplace (Mintz et al, p.104). Todays Graeco-Roman liberals agree that individual freedom ranks preceding(prenominal) material equality, that the states sphere has to be more strictly limited than it is today and that freedom is the guarantor of wealth for t he people (WordPress,2010). Classical liberalism, however, is not such a rational body of thought, as it sometimes appears to be, partly because the original liberal tradition was also one of considerable diversity. Although more quizzical of state coercion than the new liberals in general, the old liberals held widely differing views closely the states responsibilities. It is a blend of political liberalism and economic liberalism which is derived from Enlightenment thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Adam Smith, Voltaire, John Stuart Mill, and Immanuel Kant (Sheldon, p.89). Classical liberalists think that political authority should be used care effectivey to ease free markets, free trade and to protect the individuals right to private property and other economic freedoms.Conservatism is a political viewpoint that sees value in conserving by traditions, especially the timeless truths about human nature and society in the Judaeo-Christian religion (Sheldon, p.71). The le ading modern conservative was Edmund Burke, an Englishmen philosopher and a statesman, who believed that the perennial truths of horse opera civilization Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy and law, Western Christianity, classical literature such as that of Shakespeare, high art architecture, and music fall the best thing in the world and must be taught to young person people to produce civilized, decent, and moral human beings and a healthy, orderly society (Sheldon, p.72). Conservatism sees past traditions caring for the future world that we leave our children. Conservatism hates innovation, disrespect, and change for the sake. Conservatives typically oppose government policies designed to move society in the direction of greater equality (for example redistribution of income, wealth, and property from the rich to the poor). In a conservative perspective, people are naturally unequal (Mintz et al, p.107). (Sheldon, 2001). Conservative basic ideas include self-reliance, Personal responsibility Private property rights limited government powers. Conservatism in the 21st century, as a whole is on the bases of us versus them the right and the left, which is dangerous in the world we live in nowadays because of the threat of terrorist acts being witnessed. Conservatives are cognise us the right wing in the political spectrum. Today their ideas are more focused on diving rather than uniting. This type of governance is very typical and being witnessed in the United States.There is actually no best ideology to achieve the common good. The world is full of problems like poverty and war. So come to come to a conclusion on the perfect ideology is absolutely impossible. Ideologies are based on different beliefs and values, which every human being shares differently. The one ideology that woo within reach in not achieving the common good but just equality for people would have to be reform liberalism. Reform liberalism to me promotes fairness and equality for peopl e of all. It gives each individual a hazard at better life but also the government to put in and help whenever a person is need of assistance. Though were all analogous but at the same time we have equal opportunities to achieve whatever it is we desire. Reform liberalism to me is the closes way to achieve the common good but also is the best ideology that benefits most and is praise upon by the majority of society.In conclusion ideologies have shaped the world but also history. The rise and fall of the communist and fascist regime proves that human beings are not to be controlled. Instead be in charge of their own destiny. Ideologies such as liberalism and conservatism have work because of the freedom it ensures its people. close the government in our everyday lives and less control is what is desired amongst society. In retrospect the more we learn about failed past ideologies the better it is for humanness to learn from and progress into a better future.

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Oral Corrective Feedback English Language Essay

The Oral Corrective Feedback slope Language EssayThe concent sum up on errors made by minute dustup (L2) scholarly persons and Corrective Feedback (CF) _ called as negative evidence, repair, negative feedback and focus-on- normal by linguists, hold forth analysts, psychologists and those who work recently on classroom Second Language eruditeness (SLA) respectively _ had been exist on approximately every movement that had took address in the argona of lyric teaching and development (Lyster Ranta, 1997). In fifties and 1960s behaviorists believed that errors tin damage learning and should be even offed immediately. Recently, those workings within the interactionist framework (e.g. Long, 1996) maintain that since CF enables prentices to make connections between strain and meaning in the context of communication, it is important for science (Golshan Ramachandra, 2012, p. 120). The role of feedback is to a fault evident in structural and communicative approaches in wh ich feedback is viewed as a performer of fostering learner motivation and ensuring linguistic accuracy (Ellis, 2009, p. 3). owe to much(prenominal) attention given to error treatment, scholars were interested to know how they could respond learners errors which results in effective teaching of L2 and how they should be own in antithetic contexts to have a long lasting effect on learners language.Review of relate literatureMaking the nature of CF give-up the ghost many studies had make and researchers investigated various questions aroused around this issue, for example Lyater and Ranta, in 1997, observed four-spot French immersion classroom to find the different display cases of nonindulgent feedback, their statistical distribution in communicatively oriented classroom and the distribution of inspiration following different typewritewrites of nonindulgent feedback. Four years later in 2001, Lyster reviewed the recordings a crystallise. This time he tried to find the answer to two other questions that were not discussed in Lyster and Ranta (1997) 1.what types of learners errors lead to what types of corrective feedback? 2. What types of corrective feedback lead to the immediate repair of what types of learner errors?(Lyster, 2001, p. 275) Samar and Shayestefar (2009), in Iran, analyzed their selective informationbase made from observing two EFL classrooms to find how EFL teacher error treatment in terms of CFs vary across these classrooms and what type of CFs leads to learners uptake and productive repair. Related to this issue Balighizadeh and Abdi (2010) mentioned that language learning and corrective feedback bound up together and make an appropriate language learning environment. They believed that the function of feedback is to a greater extent apparent in EFL contexts which teacher is the only denotation for answering students questions and feedback giving.Corrective feedbackEllis (2009) wrote that corrective feedback takes the form of a response to a learner remark containing a linguistic error (p. 3). This anomalous utterance could be delivered in the form of an oral production of L2 or a piece of piece of writing that means teachers can give feedback to both writing and speaking of L2 learners. Bitchener (2008) points out to this issue that there whitethorn be openhanded differences between SLA work in oral and written feedback in cooperate language acquisition writing studies( as cited in Soori, Kafipour soury, 2011, p. 497). Therefore this root only focuses on corrective feedback which is given to oral erroneous utterances. agree to previous study done by Lyster and Ranta (1997) these utterances consist of nonnative-like uses of L2 which they classified them to phonological, lexical or grammatical errors and in some cases when much than one type of error occurred in a student turn (e.g. phonological+ lexical) this is called duple (p. 45). The response can consist of (1) an indication that an error h as been committed, (2) provision of the correct target language form, (3) Metalinguistic information about the nature of the error or (4) any combination of these (Soori, Kafipour Soury, 2011, p. 495). Six types of CFs setoff reported by Lyster and Ranta (1997), therefrom, separate into two categories by Soori, Kafipour and Soury found on the means they treat learners errors. This benevolent of classification established on the basis of information-processing model which describes skill acquisition as a gradual change in knowledge from indicative mood to procedural mental representations (Ding, n.d., p.88). Therefore giving the correct form helps learners to go on their declarative knowledge_ knowledge of a language system_ but giving metalinguistic information helps learners to increase control over their already internalized declarative knowledge which means to increase their procedural knowledge (Ding, n.d.).Types of corrective feedbackLyster and Ranta (1997) distinguis hed six different types of feedback in their study and Ding (n.d.) added English examples to these CF types hardcore fudge factor come tos to the pellucid provision of the correct form. As the teacher provides the correct form, he or she clearly indicates that what the student had said was in correct. (e. g. Oh, you mean, you should say). (1) L (learner) and tether pear (sounds like bear). T (teacher) not beer. Pear.Recasts involve the teachers reformulation of all or part of the students utterance minus the error. (2) T when you were in school? L yes. I stand in the first actors line. T you stood in the first row? L yes, in the first row, and sit, ah, sat the first rowClarification requests indicate to students that the utterance is ill-formed in some way and that a repeating or reformulation is required. This is a feedback type that can refer to problems in all comprehensibility or accuracy, or both. (3) L why does he fly to Korea last year? T Pardon? L why did he fly to Kore a last year?Metalinguistic feedback contain either comments, information, or questions related to how well-formed the students utterance is, without evidently providing the correct form. (4) L I went to the train station and pick up my aunt. T physical exercise past tense consistently. L I went to the train station and picked up my aunt.Elicitation refers to proficiencys that teachers use to this instant elicit the correct form from the student. Teachers can elicit completion of their own utterance by strategically pausing to book students to fill in the blank, or use questions such as How we do X in English? to elicit correct forms, or directly ask students to formulate their utterance. (5) L once upon a time, there lives a poor girl named Cinderella T once upon a time, there L there lived a girl.Repetition refers to a teachers repetition, in isolation, of a students erroneous utterance. In roughly cases, teachers adjust their intonation so as to highlighting the error. (6) L Mrs Jones excursion a lot last year. T Mrs Jones travel a lot last year? L Mrs Jones traveled a lot last year.Two other strategies that are used in L2 classrooms are clarification request and paralinguistic signals (Ellis, 2009). Paralinguistic studies most of the time accompanied with casts in order to make them more explicit for students.UptakeA do closely related to provision of CF is uptake (Samar Shayestefar, 2009, p. 110). Lyster and Ranta(1997) introduced uptake asUptake in our model refers to a students utterance that immediately follows the teachers feedback and that constitutes a reaction in some way to the teachers intention to draw attention to some aspect of the students initial utterance (this overall intention is clear to the student although the teachers specific linguistic focus may not be). (p. 49)The data revealed that uptake of students could have two types, sometimes their errors repair completely and sometimes uptakes need repair and the students may produ ce the utterance with another type of error which it is the teacher that should give CF again.Classification of corrective feedback typesExplicit feedback vs. silentAs it is written in Ding (n.d), a pop classification of CFs is to divide them agree to their explicitness and implicitness. Yang asserted that In the case of implicit feedback, there is no overt indicator that an error has been committed, whereas in explicit feedback types there is (as cited in Ding, n.d., p. 86). Long (as cited in Ding, n.d.) asserted that reshape is a form of implicit feedback and can be easily neglected, especially in a meaning-focused context. Balighizadeh and Abdi (2010) had mentioned that because they are not explicit, do not isolate the features of language form that are the focus of feedback, and do not interrupt_ even briefly_ the point of meaningful interaction (p.59). Lyster (2001) had tack together a different result. He found that recast most of the time accompanied with another strate gy such as repetition or paralinguistic signal or raising filtrate on the part that error occurred which make the recast less implicit. opposite researchers which compared the effects of recasts and metalinguistic information on delayed performance of L2 learners proposed that interactional feedback in the form of metalinguistic information baron have been more effective than recasts because learners might be more likely to perceive it as overtly corrective (as cited in Balighizadeh Abdi, 2010, p.64). Ding (n.d.) stated that this dichotomous classification of feedback can be problematic (p. 86). Another classification which tried to prevent such vagueness and was the focus of Ding paper is dividing the CF strategies into recasts and prompts.Recasts vs. promptsLyster (2001) introduced the term talks of form which he placed four Cf strategies (i.e. generalization, metalinguistic clues, clarification requests, and repetition of error) under its rubric. wholly of these strategies lead to peer- or self-repair and therefore lead to a high rate of uptake. While recasts and explicit correction provide the correct answer and therefore they do not lead to peer- or self-repair. This distinction is clearly explicit by Lyster (2001) recasts and explicit correction are thus distinguishable from the negotiation of form in that the former supplies correct forms that learners may or may not repeat, whereas the latter provides signals to facilitate peer- and self-repair (p.274). Negotiation of form is called prompt according to Dings (n.d.) studies. Because recasts provide language learners with target-like reformulations and exemplars, they account for a significant part of language input in L2 classrooms, while prompts encourage learners to produce their own target-like proceeds (p.87).Researchers findingsLyster and Ranta (1997) analysed their database in order to find the relationship between feedback type and learner uptake. According to them the most popular feedba ck technique used by teachers in their project was recast which turn out to be a technique that results the least uptake of any kind (i.e. repair and need-repair). Clarification request, metalinguistic feedback, and repetition are similar in eliciting uptake from students, and it should be mentioned that metalinguistic feedback was more successful than clarification request and repetition. The most successful technique for eliciting uptake is elicitation All learner utterances following elicitation involve uptake with an almost even distribution between repair and need-repair (Lyster Ranta, 1997, p.54). From these results it can be think that the techniques that lead to peer- or self-correction should be used more in form-focused activities. The more students notice the feedback and the more they involve in processing the language items the more uptake results.In order to answer two questions proposed by Lyster (2001) that was mentioned in this paper, Lyster examined the relations hip among error types, feedback type, and repair. He found that grammatical and phonological errors tended to request recasts, whereas lexical errors tended to invite negotiation of form more often than recast (Lyster, 2001, p. 287), And the majority of phonological repairs were learner repetitions following recasts and the majority of grammatical and lexical repairs were peer- and self-repairs following negotiation of form (Lyster, 2001, p. 288). Lyster stated thatalthough the majority of the feedback following grammatical errors involved recasts, the majority of grammatical repairs followed the negotiation of form. Conversely, lexical and phonological repairs resulted, for the most part, from the different feedback types that these error types tended to invite. (Lyster, 2001, p. 285)Samar and Shayestefars (2009) finding was in accordance with Lyster. According to them the recast the most employed feedback (i.e. recast), is the most likely to lead no uptake. Metalinguistic and ex plicit corrections are the most successful types of feedback leading to successful uptake with metalinguistic more successful at eliciting repair (Samar Shayestefar, 2009, p.125conclusionAlthough the findings of different researchers are the same, but it cannot be said that these results are conclusive (Tedick, 1998). Tedick (1998) offered four suggestions for teachers based on the experiences of her colleague_ Ms. De Gortari. According to her an English language teacher shoul (1) consider the context, (2) exit aware of his current practices, (3) practice a variety of feedback techniques, and (4) focus on the learner _ it is important to let the learner self-correct. Therefore it is important for teachers to plump aware of different techniques of Cf and use the findings of researchers in order to gain the best result from their action. If they are working on form, negotiation of form is preferred and suggested, if they are working on fluency and meaning it is break to correct the m unobtrusively.

Development Changes of Renal Tubules

victimization Changes of nephritic TubulesDevelopment win overs of renal Tubules from Neonates to Adults for its modus operandiIntro channelionTerm child agency a sweetborn child within 28 days after birth. Nephr peerless is the morphologic and structural unit of kidney. Each uriniferous tubule is made up of condition tube that specializes in ( nephritic tubule ) secretion and re submersion pre-filter unit ( nephritic soupcon ). It provides a keen solutes and peeing in tubule social organization, nephritic corpuscle excludes solutes from teleph angiotensin-converting enzyme circuit. these nephritic tubules does not decease in giving trains at neonatal period. Be find at birth, kidney is im jump on. It develops with age and reaches to the adult single-valued functioning level after several(prenominal) time. This short analytical essay describes about the development of the nephritic tubules from neonates to adults for its function that means how the renal t ubules develop and adapt to their function with age.1. Who is Infant?From the Latin meaning of infans or sens not tell and say , babe is truly young children of a compassionate or sentient being. If you apply in person, this term is usually considered equal to the child. It may be to learn that human child walks, is used in place yearn walks .Term infants entrust be used for infants up to the age of the moon 12 months and one month usually. However, it is possible to define the birth, it varies among 2 long time and birth, or between one year. Child for several hours at only very young, several days, or up to a few weeks ago. In health check condition, ( from the Latin, neonatus, newborn ) newborns and infants, in the first 28 days after birth, it means infant, this term applies hyper board Early Childhood, infant, full -term infants .2. situations of the kidneyExcretion of wasteThe kidneys excrete the heterogeneous products of waste by metabolism. These include, ,, nitrogen-bearing wastes called urea from protein catabolism, such(prenominal) as uric acid, such as this from nucleic acid metabolism. The formation of weewee, it is the function of the kidney. Accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the urine of birds and some mammals, rely on exercise countercurrent multiplication trunk. This requires the nephron function of the independent functions of several .Re- absorption of essential nutrientsGlucose plasma levels, re- absorption in the proximal tubule is completely regular. Is re preoccupied in the proximal tubule, amino acids ar sodium-dependent channeliseer .Acid-base homeostasisMaintain the acid-base homeostasis is to maintain the pH value near the organ arrangings of the two kidneys, lungs, stabilized. Very important grapheme of the two in the maintenance of acid-base equalizer and kidney Re- absorption of bicarbonate from the urine, to vacate the henry ions in the urineRegulation of blood pressureKidney can not be used to d irectly detect blood, but long term control of blood pressure is dependent on the kidney mainly. The surface of, is performed via the maintenance of theextracellular water compartment depends on the plasma sodium concentration this .endocrine gland secretionAnd kidney secret reference of hormones such as erythropoietin, enzyme renin. ( Low levels of oxygen at the tissue level ) release erythropoietin in response to hypoxia in renal circulation. It is to stimulate the ( toil of red blood cells ), red blood cell production in the bone marrow .3. Nephronrenal corpuscleConfigure the Bowmans wrap and glomerulus, renal corpuscle is the commencement of the nephron. It filters the sepa lay out of the original nephron.TubuleIt is a part of the nephron, including water filtration cylindrical by means of glomerulus.After by the tubule of the renal tubules, and continues to collect, the duct system that is not part of the nephron is the filt priser.Function of the renal tubules, is liste d on the page XXCollecting duct systemThe first part is a small tube connection system of collecting duct, it provides the pass-through for each distal tubule. Collection of the duct system begins with the renal cortex and medulla to the deep. Urine so that down the collection duct system, passes the gap marrow with a high sodium concentration because the circle of henle is a countercurrent multiplier system.Juxtaglomerular apparatusAngiotensin system production of the enzyme renin involvement and juxtaglomerular apparatus is a specialized ara of nephron cause of renin secretion to .4. Functions of various segments of Renal TubuleThe type of renal tubule, and is part of the filtration nephron from the glomerulus. It is composed of the following elements1 .proximal convoluted tubule2. Loop of Henle divided into thirdthin descending offset loopingthick ascending limb3. distal tubule4.Collecting ductProximal tubule (PCT)In the first part of the renal tubule, near corpusle kidney, which is lying on the cortex of the kidney. The filtered water from the Bowman capsule enters the proximal tubule. Has a brush border, which has been designed to cubiodal epithelial tissue. It has eosinophilic cytoplasm delinquent to the number of mitochondria .Work of PCTPCT is, H2O If you re- absorb 2/ 3 ( percent 65-80 and Na) or, filtered glucose, and this is, to re- absorb all amino acidsNa glucose is re- absorbed by the co-transport of GluThe section, I resorb potassium bicarbonate, calcium phosphate pure descending loop (TDL)I reabsorb water (H 2 O) passivelyit is impermeable to sodium (Na)I will allow a hypertonic urine in the TDL, urine is concentratedThick ascending loopand, in this part of the loop, CL and K is reabsorbed activelyThis does not transmit H2OIn this section, urine is a low concentrationDistal tubuleThis part of the tubules are lined with a simple cubic epithelium with Musuri-ko edgeThe re- absorption of sodium chloride actively ,This secrete hydrogen i on and ammonium ion ion .be part of the juxtaglomerular apparatusCollecting ductIs on the CD, and is performed through the cortex to the medulla and leads to renal papilla. The epithelium is different in cubic columnar epithelium with ( al close nipple ). This is the last part of the renal tubule. It has two types of cells .5. The Renal Function in NeonatesCompared with adults, renal function, and is changed newborns. Complete structure in terms of the number of nephrons of 36 weeks, but the luxuriate of the kidney is functionally immature still. Renal function is subject to rapid maturation in postbirth during the first week of both of preterm infants with time. Because I control the balance of water and electrolytes at that time, a small amount, because of the extremely low birth charge infants, and there was especially. Overhydration, dehydration, and the biggest risk for children, contains the electrolyte imbalance .It is possible to maintain a popular state, the homeostasis of the kidney after birth. However, infants early, most can be less, which is to maintain the water balance of the common electrolyte, or bicarbonate. To maintain homeostasis, the control of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration plays an important role in determining the ability of the kidney. The biggest element that determines the renal function is probably maturity. Renal formation, up to 34 weeks of motherhood is not complete. In particular, under the glomerular filtration, and absorption and filtration of the kidney, which has a satisfying effect on the hormone-sensitive nephron control .6. Renal Function of the of age(p)Including glomerulosclerosis a diminish in size of the kidney, increased vascular changes and arterioles, the type of anatomical defect in the aging kidney, piddle been identified. Also natural changes, including a decrease in renal blood flow, decreased glomerular filtration rate, hollow framework of the kidney, the shape of the endocrine renal function, are described. From one point of intercession by a physician or disease, clinical outcome of these changes is the ability of the kidney -shaped age to cope with stress. Vigilance and special attention is admited when you organise care of the elderly .7. Renal Function in Relation to the ageIn comparison, the growth and food intake of adults in maintaining the biochemical stable surroundings, when it is more important for infants than kidneys. Infants, kidneys are developing with the normal function of the s properly. However, it is very adaptable to emergency THN in adults. It is not present in urine excrection rhythm birth of a normal adult. These have been developed within a few geezerhood. GFR is a baby less than adults. However, the proportion of adult products and to compare, this low GFR is enough to excrete a small amount .8. Structural changes of Kidney with ageThe number of structural change takes place in the kidney of aging. Kidney of aging is characteriz ed in that the number of news kidney, vascular sclerosis, hyaline artery disease, hardening of glomerular increases, tissue fibrosis and renal tubules is lost. Pathogenesis of structural changes associated with aging are not fully understood. Both the hemodynamic factors and genetic background, are associated with the development of physical changes associated with age. Structural changes in the aging kidney, is a non-specific, diabetes and be seen in many situations, including high blood pressure, such as a, and, can, is a diagnosis of exclusion is arterionephrosclerosis aging Decline associated with aging, host of the structure and function of the kidney. Might disrupt the estimate of the impact of aging on renal function, appreciation and selection of the population, the problem, methodological, which led to the re-evaluation of recent. Well as a decrease in renal function protected areas, the common denominator of these changes, is the subject of kidney of either excess or def ect of constraints and the ability to respond appropriately. These changes, to achieve clinical significance when the residual renal function was challenged by the superposition of slap-up disease, under the conditions of day-to-day, but there is likely to have a major(ip) clinical results. Finally, often amplify these drawbacks whereby, elderly patients should be emphasized may be a change in the aging and addition, can co-morbidities, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, plump for .9. Functional changes of Kidney with GrowthRenal function, started the development of a program ,It continues to germinate in the first year of life Full adult rate. down the stairs this attend, the responsible kidney Changes and to provide renal function during childhood, in particular the Characteristics. forgiving kidney to begin the development in five Started production of urine between the pregnancy and the 10th week 12 weeks of gestation. It was completed in near the 36 week from 35 to newborn long-term kidney formation, but are born with a nephron all of its What is not a good example of one of the initial born before, Renal formation is complete. Entire process of fetal kidney The progress to be regulated by many genes have recently been shown For example, as cytokines and growth factors such gene products and, Intrauterine environment itself in a special process known as, Epigenetics. Kidney regulates homeostasis to the basic carrying out of the two, Glomerular and cannular. It is the work of all neonatal although neonatalkidneys flaws and is equipped with, Of them to develop a physiological process, is severely limited The response to stress. Infants having a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Was increased stepwise to achieve, the low and 20 ml/min/1.73 m, at birth Adult levels at 18 months. Completely new nephron has not been played in childhood, but is available in sizes from increasing, I mature in the workplace. Tubular function and glomeruli, but may mature level Between 12-18 months, kidney child maintaining a low capacitance for dealing with residual Susceptible to trauma of childhood .Started developing early, renal function, twisted creature Evolution in the first few years of his life full, to adults Level. Under this process, is responsible for changes giving kidney Kidney Function in the story of his childhood and childhood somewhat. But From, the main challenge for developing kidney events of the migration I adjust the uterus to life outside the womb, the homeostasis of the continuous for Organisms childhood and maturation during childhood are also sought .10. Developmental changes of Renal Tubules for its FunctionIf you have corrected the size of the body, starting in stages it, remain relatively constant 4 of life up to 10 years old, shows the age of 1 year and kidney capacity fully functional, standard of renal function a decline in the use of age-related indicators, the glomerular filtration rate such. Be p redicted without knowledge of the exact tools involved Avoid reabsorption and tubular secretion of positive and negative ions in order to provide an chance for drug interactions is difficult. Data to support the development changes in the net tubular secretion of several items. For digoxin, clearance of digoxin observed in children during puberty, most of the creatinine clearance is reduced at a rate under context in adults, this decrease, and more mature than the age of the annual, and more there is a good correlation. Renal excretion of metabolites and active drug and a very important medicine provides important clinical information definition of the mechanism of renal tubular net .In preterm infants, secretion tubular reabsorption and organic acids certain amino acids, and potassium hydrogen ion is a relatively immature at birth in particular, was increased as a function of postnatal age. As part of the animal and continuous, immature state, on the other hand, the ability of phosphate reabsorption is enhanced when you adapt to their environment. In the case of glucose, under 34 weeks, transport system is relatively mature at the time of the infants so during pregnancy. One, as well as the treatment of pharmacological preterm infants tubular transport amino acids development, potassium, phosphorus, and nutrition, in the evaluation of long-term, you need to consider organic acid, these changes. Adult levels is different from ability and dilution capacity of the urine should be considered. To dilute the ability to be in the ability to take into account the fact that normal adult level three months and level of adult 14th. The ability to excrete water load reached adulthood at the end of January. Inability to concentrate urine at the level of the adult is due to it is impossible to correspond to the ADH The inherited microtubules and a small amount of ureThis article has reviewed the maturation of major renal tubular transport systems. The tubular reabsorpt ion of certain amino acids and the secretion of organic acids, hydrogen ions, and potassium increases as a function of postnatal age, being relatively immature at birth, especially in the preterm infant. In contrast, the ability for phosphate reabsorption is enhanced during the immature state as the developing animal attempts to adapt to its environment. In the case of glucose, the transport system is relatively mature in the term infant and less so in the infant of less than 34 weeks gestation. One should consider these developmental changes in the renal tubular transport of amino acids, potassium, phosphate, and organic acids in the nutritional assessment and pharmacologic treatment of preterm as well as term infants.ReferencesGuyton, Arthur C. Hall, tooshie E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia Elsevier Saunders. P.Maton, Anthea Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, regular army Prentice Hall.Jameson, J. Larry Loscalzo, Joseph (2010) .Harrisons nephrology and acid base disorders. McGraw- Hill Professional. p.3Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. P. 743.Developmental changes in renal tubular func J Adolesc Health. 1994 PubMed NCBIRenal function in the neonate. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 1994 PubMed NCBI (1)Postnatal development of renal function duri Pediatr Nephrol. 1987 PubMed NCBIRenal physiology. Part II Fluid and electroly Neonatal Netw. 1995 PubMed NCBI (1)The aging kidney structural changes. J Nephrol. 2010 Sep-Oct PubMed NCBI (1)Renal function in the elderly. Cardiol Clin. 1986 PubMed NCBI (1)Renal function in the elderly. Cardiol Clin. 1986 PubMed NCBI

Thursday, March 28, 2019

The Second Battel Of Bll Run :: essays research papers

The cooperate bout of bull runThe year is 1862, during the Civil War. My name is motherfucker Taurance and I am eighteen years old. I am a soldier that has to fight in the 2nd competitiveness of Bull Run. The battle is going to take place in my hometown of Manassas, Virginia. I cannot wait. It is going to be so great I have heard that the 1st Battle of Bull Run was hell, but this one wont be. Itll be great because Im in it and I am flake for my country and the people of Virginia. I am proud to be a part of the Confederate Army.August 27, 1862 forthwith is the first day of the battle. Im excited beyond imagination I cannot discourse my feelings right now. Robert E. Lee, the general of the Confederate Army, has told us to get in our fighting positions. I am next to older work force that have fought in other battles, and they tell me not to be so excited for fight is a terrible thing. Seeing as this is so new to me I shrug off their words of wisdom and continue with my merry th oughts. The men next to me tell me I need to listen to commands and stay center at all times, or I will loose my life. We began to litigate towards the Union Army. On the way, I heard loud explosions all most me the Union Army was using cannons and mines to defend themselves. The men around me began to disperse their riffles, so I did the same. There was yelling and firing all around, it seemed as though we were surrounded. The noise was so intense I felt it passim my trunk. We were in the war it was nothing as I expected. There was last all around me. I dont think I have of all time so been more scared in my life. I was not mentally brisk to see what I saw nor was I physically prepared to do what was expected of me. Still I stayed brave, I didnt let any of my emotions pour through, for if I did I would never have been able to continue.August 28-30, 1862 The entropy and third days of this war were complete hell. There was so ofttimes action during theses days. I couldnt believe it There was more blood, guts and body less appendages just lying around than I could have ever imagined.

Social War :: Personal Narrative Essays

Social War   Thats her, thats the new girl. Thats Holly Bennett. She is going to be in our group and not theirs, Mandi told us, as Holly shyly do her way oer to the teachers desk.   Our regular gang was sitting in the middle of 8th locate English. We were all tooshieed in a circle in the masking corner of the old, smelly classroom. Our enemies, as we called them, were seated in the opposite corner. Mandi, Summer, Kristi, Lindsey, Anna and I were all picturesque close friends then. It seemed like you had to be in ane of two groups, ours or theirs, to even be talked to by everybody else. Our enemies, were more or less what you might call the preppies. They were the few who could get the boys to do some(prenominal) they wanted, had lots of high school friends, and could look at the teacher the even out way, to get an A on their reports. We got along fine with them, except when a new girl came into our class. The new girls always seemed to start a common cold war between us. Last time, we tried everything to get the new girl, Kristi, to fall out with us instead of the preps. We ended up winning Kristi over, which do the new meat worth even more.   As Mrs. Gallegos, our elderly, over exercising weight teacher, was introducing Holly, many thoughts went racing through our heads. I think we were all pretty much thinking along the same lines, Shes ours. As Holly took a seat over near the door, we began conversing among ourselves. Holly was near, tall, had brownish hair and seemed to be very shy. This made several things easy for us. Most of the people in our group were skinny and tall, so that meant we could share clothes amongst ourselves and now Holly could too. As we were planning on how to make Holly ours, I glanced across the room, and saw that our enemies were doing the exact same thing, planning. I told the other girls to look over at them, and then decided that we should number 1 tell them not to even bother wit h trying to win Holly over. We, afterward all, had won the last girl, which made the ratio from our group to theirs, 6 to 4.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Strategic Management of McDonalds Essay -- Business, Case Study, solu

difficulty IDENTIFICATIONThe main problem from McDonalds case, McDonalds Polishing the Golden Arches, is how to classify McDonalds strategy through Plan to Win into one of the five generic warring strategies. Before we solve this main problem, we should determine the chief economic and traffic characteristics, the five forces analysis, and also the driving forces of the fast-food industry. After that we identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats by apply SWOT analysis. Finally, we classify McDonalds strategy into one of the five generic militant strategies. ANALYSISThe chief economic and business characteristics of the fast-food industryIn 2003 gross sales for the U.S. consumer food-service market totaled approximately $408 billion. For the get up segment, the top 30 sandwich chains had U.S. system wide sales of approximately $64 billion. emerging growth in the sandwich segment was expected to be whole around 2 percent annually for the foreseeable f uture. McDonalds and Burger King were the earliest and most aggressive hamburger chains to begin to expand internationally. The products of the divers(a) sandwich chains in U.S. were securely differentiated, continuously follow the trends that be changed all the time. The five forces analysis and the driving forces of the fast-food industryBy employ the Porters five forces model of competition, we identify rivalry among fast-food chains and buyers as the strong forces that make the competition in fast-food industry more and more tighten. In general, McDonald and its main competitors (Burger King Corporation, Wendys International, Inc., Hardees, and Jack in the Box) are active in making fresh moves to improve their market standing and bus... ...simultaneously by making the restaurants more efficient to increase the speed of service and emphasizing hospitality, accuracy, and cleanliness with brisk training and incentives programs worldwide. 2)Leadership marketingMcDonald shoul d maintain Im lovin it all the time and process it more than a marketing campaign in enounce to present a global brand message through advertising, packaging, and restaurant experiences. This stinker be used for shaping McDonalds employees attitude in serving the customers.3) establishmentMcDonald must make a lot of innovation in order to satisfy its customers and win the competition because successful innovation can sanction the market position of the innovating companies. For example, by featuring a variety of Value, Premium, and wholesome wit offerings, McDonald can deliver the right products at the right price for its customers.

Garden State Essay -- essays research papers

tend State by PipsorcleAndrew Largemans (Zack Braff) journey throughout "Garden State" seems to be a testament on the convey of liberation. Going from his struggling acting life in Los Angeles to his hometown in revolutionary Jersey, where he witnesses his mothers funeral, Andrew is in the mist of confronting difficult issues. One of the biggest issues is coming to footing with his psychologist father (Ian Holm), whom he has distanced himself from for many years because he has put him on powerful antidepressants for most of his life. The reason for this I will non emit further it has caused Andrew to feel as if his father has controlled his life in a way.In showing how Andrew Largeman finds himself again, "Garden State" makes a good woof in putting him in every one of its scenes. Since this film is genuinely almost Largeman, because he is in every scene, we see a overture in his character as time goes on. At the beginning, we sense that Andrew feels rath er numb and alienated plainly then as the film progresses, he becomes more energetic and liberated. This gradual change in his character is highlighted all the way in the cinematography, a key method in showing Andrews mental state.For a directorial debut, I must say Zack Braff has given me a whole different impression than from his regular role in the "Scrubs" TV series. One might think that for a directorial debut coming from a TV actor would be uneven and at outgo, formulaic and uninspired. Thats not the case here with "Garden State." Braff shows he knows how to handle directing and layertelling soon enough at the same time, showing a vision that clearly establishes himself as an auteur. Examples of this are the tense moments when Andrew is around his father. A lesser film would go for theatrics and end up being very talky in dialogue, but instead, Andrew and his fathers moments together are more subtle. Whenever we see both of them together, they talk but when they talk, their relationship is forced. Theres a sense of silence at times, which shows they feel disquieting seeing distributively other after the lack of good discourse for about a decade.Of course, one might think that from the way Im describing "Garden State" so far, the film is on the more serious side. Its actually more funny than serious but even describing the film as a comedy wouldnt do ju... ... selling his invention of soundless secure and now trundles down the corridors of his unfurnished McMansion in a golf cart. other buddy, Mark (Peter Sarsgaard), sells jewelry he acquires in a highly uncommon manner. Braff also writes simple in so far refreshing dialogue, with plenty of offbeat humor, yet none of it is strained, nothing is played self-consciously for laughs. Braff himself has a warm, easy-to-watch screen presence. He can say nothing during the lull in a conversation, eyepatch the camera remains focused on his face, and it feels right. Portman a nd Sarsgaard are also genuine, each wonderfully relaxed in their roles. Production design is superb details in every scene are arranged well, and the photography, by Lawrence Sher, is - like the story and the acting unpretentious, never distracting, tricky or cute. This film never seems to manage us instead it engages us, arouses our curiosity and amusement, bids us gently to care about Andrew and Sam and even Mark, leaving us entertained in the best sense. This movie is as confident, as secure in itself, as comforting, as a well worn pair of house slippers or your preferent reading chair. A splendid film. Grade A- (09/04)

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Immanuel Kant Essays -- essays research papers

Im patchuel Kant 1724-1804Immanuel Kant was born on April 22, 1724 in Konigsberg, eastmost Prussia. He was the son of a saddler. At age 8, he entered the Collegium Fredericianum, a Latin school, where he rebrinyed for 8 1/2 eld and analyse the classics. He then entered the University of Konigsberg in 1740 to study philosophy, mathematics, and physics. The death of his father halted his university charge so he became a private tutor. In 1755, he returned to Konigsburg where he later resumed his studies. In 1756, he received a degree and was make a lecturer, and in 1770 he became a professor.      Kant felt he had to bandage to a very strict schedule during his years as a professor. He would get up shortly before five in the morning and spent an hour drinking tea, smoking a pipe, and sentiment over his days work. From six to seven he prepared his lecture, which would begin at seven or eight and lasted until nine or ten. After his lecture he would devote hims elf to writing until the midday meal. He always had company for his midday meal and it would always last some(prenominal) hours because he enjoyed conversation. After the meal he would take a walk of life for an hour or so and his evenings were devoted to reading and reflection. He would go to bed at ten oclock. Besides his writings, he became ren suffered for his schedule.      Kants most striking character trait was probably his clean-living earnestness and his devotion to the idea of duty. He was a sociable man and was as well kindly and benevolent. He was never rich but he was careful in money matters. He fixly assisted a number of poor people. He was a sincere and loyal acquaintanceship and his conduct was marked by courtesy and respect for others.For 15 years after completing his doctorate he taught at the university where he lectured on science and math, but eventually he expanded his field to sweep almost all branches of philosophy. Kant was an am azing orator and was internationally famous for his lectures. His main goal in philosophical courses was to stimulate his listeners to stand on their own feet as he put it. He was appointed to a regular chair of philosophy at the University at the age of 46 in 1770. He was made the professor of logics and metaphysics. He came into conflict with Prussias government collectable to his unorthodox religious teachings. In 1792, the King of Prussia, Frede... ...mpiricist. Descartes, on the other hand, was a "realist" believing that objects exist separately from us. He also thought that we could single know their essences through "clear and distinct" innate ideas. This made him a "transcendental" realist. Kants thoughts were mainly influenced by the rationalism of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Christian Wolff, and the empiricism of David Hume. The lawsuit I chose Immanuel Kant to research is because not only of his philosophical views but also because of his in terests in scientific issues. He was interested in virtually every aspect of human experience. While researching him I became impressed with his views on war, oddly that if we allowed the people who have to do the fighting to make the decision intimately war, we would have peace. I agree that sometimes the government makes the decisions that doesnt instance what the people want. I was also impressed with his views on religion, how the churches become instruments in the hands of the government and the clergy become tools of politics. Since Kants thought is truly the basis of recent philosophy, it is still a main point of departure for the 21st century.

Essay --

Theres a myth that conviction is money. In fact, time is more precious than money. Its a nonrenewable resource. at one time youve spent it, and if youve spent it badly, its gone forever, this famous quote by Neil Fiore has drastically changed my life. I have decided to use time efficiently thus not wasting this priceless resource. Comparably cut down time duration in doing projects in industries is one of the main ambition of Fredrick Winslow Taylor popularly known as Father of industrial engineering and Charles W. Babbage who contributed greatly to industrial engineering. Greatly inspired and motivated by the works of these mechanical engineers, I have decided to pursue active explore in industrial plan as a career objective. It was in my sixth semester of my to a lower place graduate university curriculum I took a melody titled trading operations research which took me close to the basic concepts of Industrial engineering. The topics learned in this course and its usage in day to day life made me to designate further interest in the yield. For example before buying a new vehicle, you would evaluate all the possible options available to reach office, whence you would select the fast and cost effective option thus reducing your expenses by doing this you are unknowingly using the concept of Optimization which is a basic concept of Industrial engineering. This liveliness present in the subject truly enthralled me. However it was in my fourth semester the course Industrial engineering management taught how an industry can be managed effectively. Deeply interest in the topics I also selected project management as an electoral subject this even made me to go deeper into the basic concepts of Industrial Engineering like Gantt charts, critical path m... curricular are as definitive as studies in evaluating students profile. I am an active member of bailiwick Social Service of VIT University.In the National service scheme special camp, I tau ght children in elementary schools for over 60 hours and explained to them the importance of education..It is my firm precept that in order to achieve greater things in life, a unmarried mans degree is not sufficient. Based on my abilities and interests I tang that pursuing a graduate program at your prestigious university would benefit me greatly in the pursuit of my dreams and goals. In this rapidly progressing world, higher knowledge, and wider motion picture to practical experience and involvement in more extensive research are essential to the development of a well-rounded engineer. Hoping with a cocksure attitude, I ardently look forward to be a percent of your esteemed institution.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Data WareHouse :: Technology, Database

existence a market leader today requires competitive advantage all over rival organizations. By investing in information w arehouses, organizations can repair predict the trends in market and offer services best suitable to the needs of their customers. A Data Warehouse (DW) can be delimit as a subject-oriented, non-volatile informationbase having records over years 1,2. DWs support the strategic decision-making operation and help to answer questions such as Who was our best customer for this relic last year?3.Different DW systems consists of different components, however, some core components are shared by most DW systems. The first component is the data sources. DW receives foreplay from different data sources (such as Point-Of-Sales (POS) systems, Automated Teller Machines (ATM) in banks, stoppage terminals etc). The second component is the data staging area. The data comes from data sources and it is fit(p) in the staging area, where the data is treated with differen t transformations and cleansed of any anomalies. aft(prenominal) this transformation, the data is placed in the third component which is kn declare as storage area, which is usually a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). This procedure of data extraction from data sources, transformation and finally loading in storage area is regarded as Extract, Transform and Load (ETL). The saved data from the storage can be viewed by reporting units. Different on-line(a) Analytical Processing (OLAP) tools assist in generating reports based on the data saved in the storage area 4,5,6,7,8.We believe that testing should be ingrained in DW development. Thus, each of the DW components should be tested. One of the main challenges in testing the DW systems is the fact that DW systems are different among organizations, each organization has its own DW system that conforms with its own requirements and needs, which leads to having differences between DW systems in several aspects (such as dat abase technology, tools used, size, weigh of users, number of data sources, how the components are connected, etc.)9. Another big challenge that is set about by the DW testers is regarding the test data preparation. Making use of real data for testing purpose is a violation of citizens privacy laws in some countries (for example, using real data of bank accounts and other information is illegal in many countries). For a proper testing of a DW, front of a huge amount of test data is necessary. In real-time environment, the system may behave differently in the presence of terabytes of data 10.

Asher Lev :: essays research papers

Asher LevThis story is about a Jewish son from Brooklyn, whos talent is painting. He introduces himself as a young universe struggling with inner conflict between his religious upbringing and his wonderful God-given gift that cannot be controlled and seems to possess a spirit all it own. He can not explain why he feels he must(prenominal) paint, and does not like the fact that he hurts e reallyone he loves, and insults e very(prenominal)thing he believes in, barely continues on his path which seems to have been chosen for him.All throughout the playscript we see the conflicts between Asher and his family, and grow a hatred towards his father, even though he is a good man and respected highly in the community. As a young boy Asher is told by his father who seems to value that his artistic ability is foolishness and that he needs to focus his management on his school work. We tend to like his mother, Rivkeh, because, even though she says she doesnt want Asher to paint, we know that deep down she knows art is where his heart is, and it is the only thing that makes him happy. We can relate with her as she stands by the window worry and wondering when her loved ones will be home.Asher does not get very much encouragement from other people until he meets the world far-famed Jacob Kahn, who becomes his inspiration, his teacher, and his link to the great work of art. The two meet at the Rebbes office. This meeting was not accidental. It was set up by the Rebbe, who Asher was not very fond of because he is sending his father to Vienna. The Rebbe understands Asher better than his parents do. He knows that Asher has this talent, and wants him to per cut it. When Ashers dad goes away to Vienna, his mom stays back in Brooklyn with him in hopes that he will studyhard. He studies enough to get by, further still brings to life everything he sees. Jacob Kohn teaches Asher how to become a great painter, cautioning him what he is getting into. As Asher becomes Asher Lev the painter, instead of the son of Reb Aryeh Lev, his father becomes intrusive and wants to go to one of his shows. Aryeh wants to see some of his work but refuses to go if there are nude paintings.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Oil Spill Response Essay -- Nature Natural Oil Essays

embrocate Spill ResponseAbstract This paper describes equipment and techniques for responding to vegetable rock cover spills. Various techniques for the containment, cleanup and recovery of crude oil spills be examined advantages and disadvantages of each are considered. A yearn with providing insight for oil spill response, this paper discusses purlieual factors which slew contribute to the success or failure of a cleanup operation. opening Oil is the life blood of our modern industrial society. It fuels the machines and lubricates the wheels of the worlds production. But when that vital resource is out of control, it can destroy oceanic life and devastate the milieu and economy of an entire region. The theater of operations facts are that the technology of oil-- its extraction, its transport, its refinery and use-- has outpaced laws to control that technology and prevent oil from polluting the environment (Max, 1969). Oil in its many forms has become one of the necessi ties of modern industrial life. Under control, and serving its intended purpose, oil is efficient, versatile, and productive. On the other hand, when oil becomes out of control, it can be one of the most devastating substances in the environment. When spilled in water, it spreads for miles around leaving a black memory hind end (Stanley, 1969). Oil spills, no matter large or small, have long been of concern to pollution control authorities in this country. Due to its soul-destroying nature, once an area has been contaminated by oil, the whole character of the environment is changed. When it has encountered something solid to cling to, whether it be a beach, a rock, the feathers of a misrepresent or gull, or a bathers hair, it does not pronto let go (Stanley, 1969). By its nature o... ... Issues Resources Series 5 (61) 18-20. Max, N.E. 1969. Oil pollution and the law. Washington, D.C. The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. National Research Council. 1989. Using oil pollution disper sants on the sea. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. Nelson, A.N. 1971. Effects of oil on marine plants and animals. London Institute of Petroleum. Peter Lane. 1995. The use of chemicals in oil spill response. MI Ann Arbor. Robert, J.M. and Associates. 1989. Oil spill response guide. New tee shirt NOYES DATA Corporation. Stanley, E.D. 1969. Oil pollution Problems and policies. Washington, D.C. The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. Swift, W.H, . C.J. Touhill, W.L. Templeton, and D.P. Roseman. 1969. Oil sack prevention, control, and restorationstate of the art and research needs. Washington, D.C. The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.

Reason to Quit Smoking Essay -- Tobacco Nicotine Smoking Cigarettes

As many know that the effects on people caused by smoking it crossing the final borders of danger to quit that sickening substance abuse of smoking. Hence if I get a chance to ban anything in the world, it will be smoking. Millions of people around the world enjoy the distasteful habit of smoking. This habit contributes to an outbreak of diseases which brings pain, suffering and death to millions every year. We should rest this suffering by prohibiting smoking in all its forms. Smokers, non-smokers, and the environment are all adversely affected by smoking. Smoking is one of the switch things you can do to your body. The list of additives allowed in the manufacture of bottoms consists of 600 possible ingredients. When burned, cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals, with over 40 of them being known carcinogens. Arsenic, cytosine monoxide, methanol, cadmium, and hydrogen cyanide are just a few of the ingredients put in todays cigarettes. Some other ingredients include r at poison, lighter fluid, create stripper, and tar. Studies show that smokers are much more likely to die premature...

Saturday, March 23, 2019

A Day in the Mind of an Anorexic Girl :: Papers

A Day in the Mind of an anorectic Girl I am drifting, floating gently as if through and through clouds. Suddenly I am awake and my eyes open to fetch up darkness Then I am no longer floating, as my feet hit the ground and I waver slightly, managing to stay balanced. I am in a massive, dark, open outer space but can mistily make out jumbled images beginning to appear. I find myself detain in a girls mind. Not just any girl provided she has an eating disorder known as Anorexia Nervosa. As she opens her eyes, the vast space is lit up and I experience the confusion that is her mind. It is not a pretty sight. Everything looks to be mixed up. There is a sky supra my head. Although it is light, it is not blue. It is more of a misty grey. The scenery is in have sex disorder, with jagged pieces of what looks like rock and everyday items such as clothes, stati matchlessry and bits of paper lying haphazardly about the room. I turn roughly to see what the area behind me looks like and, as I do, a single red door appears as if out of nowhere, on one side. It has no hinges, and does not appear to be resting on anything, so I go to take a imminent look. I turn the lymph gland slowly and I carefully ease open the door. Behind it I see a girl, contend and bone, so thin that her eyes seem sunken into her face. She walks up to a mirror and, instead of seeing her true(a) reflection, I see what she sees. She sees a large overweight girl who nearly seems to grow fatter as you look at her, suffocating her The girl tone in the mirror pulls her thin, dry, blonde hair back and takes a closer look at the distorted image of her face. Then, she lifts her large T-shirt slightly. It hangs more often than not and reveals a tiny, shrunken torso. She pulls helplessly at her paper thin skin but the reflection, instead, shows the girl holding a handful of flab.

Sin in The Scarlet Letter :: Scarlet Letter essays

Sin in The Scarlet letter        Since the dawn of time people have read, studied and enjoyed books in which the hacek or heroes fall from grace. No matter who those heroes are- the human race in The Bible,the demon prince Lestat in Anne Rices Vampire Chroniclesor a certain Thane of Cawdor in Macbeth- the pits plays a greatpart in all of their downfalls and subsequent ressurections.And the common chord principal(prenominal) characters in Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter-Dimmesdale, Chillingsworth, and Hester Prynne- are no different.          All three characters are flung from the normal rolesthat society has laid upon them- minister, housewife, doctor-into untried roles- sinener, whore, and vengance crazed sadist.These new roles are not necessarily apparent to all in town.However, even so though the townspeople do not know of thesinners, God does. And in Gods eyes, whose sin was greater?That, I cannot answer. But in this mer e mortals opinion, the sin of Chillingsworth far outdid the sin of Dimmesdale or Hester Prynne, for Chillingsworths sin was one of revengeand one of secrecy. He was not driven by an anger at his ownsin, but by the sin of others. He used deception andmanipulation to make the life of another(prenominal) miserable. He wasnot flung from societys view as if he were a dirty secretlike Hester was he was embraced by it. However, his sin didtake its toll.  He was disfigured horribly and became atwisted man, scarred by sin. He also was robbed of thepleasure of destroying Dimmesdale which was his reason forliving. He died shortly after Dimmesdale.          Hester Prynne, however, was the gross(a) opposite of Chillingworth in that her sin gave her life, not destroyed it. She took her punishment and embraced it, use it to rebuild herself not as a pathetic sinner, but as a pseudo-saint. At first, the town shunned her as a sinner. However,after they saw that sh e was good, and her sin was of love,the same town embraced and loved her. Her sin drew her moredeeply into the society of capital of Massachusetts than she ever was before.And when her time to die came, she did so with honor. HesterPrynne - sinner and saint.     However, Hesters sin was shared. Whereas she was asinner on the outside and a saint on the inside, ArthurDimmesdale is the reverse, both literally and figuratively.