Thursday, February 28, 2019
IFRS is excessively referred to as International Financial Reporting Standards. They be strike off of bars of history developed by International history Standards Board (IASA). They are becoming the standards in the globe to be used for preparation of pecuniary rumors for the public companies. IASB is independent body which fit(p)s chronicle standards which is based in capital of the United Kingdom (McLaughlin, 2009). This body consists of fifteen members who are from nine countries including United States. IASB started operating in 2001 since it succeeded International Accounting Standards Committee.With desperate laws, cultures, tax regulation and commerce, individual nations, overtime induce come so as to develop accounting systems of their own. In United States, Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB), organise in year 1973, was third group which developed the Gener every last(predicate)y Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in U. S, since the formal setting of standards which started in 1939. FASB is the first group in US which employed independently funded full-time professionals to be independent in accounting profession.Sanctioned officially in 1973 December, by Securities and Exchange guidance (SEC), which was federal regulator, FASB up to now continues setting accounting standards for U. S (Subramani, 2009). IASC was formed shortly after FASB had been formed in the same year so as to develop accounting standards which will be internationalisticly accepted. During the advance(prenominal) 1970s, economy of the globe was at that time marked by involution of the cross-border activities. This time seemed to be right in considering whether there was a lease to set universal accounting standards to address world which was shrinking (McLaughlin, 2009).IASC in their effort of promoting acceptance of one set standards of accounting globally, tried to release certain inclusive standards. Committee members often had difficult in achieving a common consensus on proper accounting treatment to transactions which were convertible or the same (AICPA, 2010). They identified preferred treatments, just now accounting which was distinguishable with besides distinct cores was as well allowed. They considered this as necessary so as to promote the acceptance of complete set for the world accounting standards.If specific standard was much different from that which was accepted generally in an individual country, that nation may not accept all the set standards. It was better in allowing some alternatives in order to bring some nations into the mix. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) replaced IASC after it had issued 41accounting standards to be used internationally in 2001. Since formation of IASB, it has issued around eight IFRS and also they have special several(prenominal) international accounting standards (IASs).In 2000, European Commission provided the international standards large throw out as it ann ounced initiative which required some(prenominal) listed company in the European union to be utilise IFRS offset the year 2005. Before mandatory introduction for all companies to use IFRS, all countries in European Community regulated separately their standards of inform (McLaughlin, 2009). The pass judgment of using IFRS did not affect the non-listed companies in Europe. European ministers council approved IFRS in 2002. At the start of 2005 approximate of 7000 companies effected the change.Around 6500 of these companies had been prior reporting GAAP in their own country, with almost 3000 of them in UK alone (Ernst & Young, 2009). EU however, never endorsed three paragraphs in IAS 39, and these were standards which deal with measurements and recognition of the monetary instruments. irritability potential of the earnings which was related to such paragraphs accounting macro put off as well as option of fair value do the standard setters to go back in the drawing board sever al times, but there was no appearance of silver bullets.Up to now, EU has not amply endorsed set of the IFRS which was promulgated by IASB (Jermakowicz, & Epstein, 2008). Failure of EU to fully endorse these set of international standards is world-shaking issues to several reasons, not the few which is requirement in the IAS1, financial program line bequestation that is explicitly stated by a company that their financial narrations are complying with the IFRS (McLaughlin, 2009). Companies are further not allowed to state their financial statements as complying with IFRS if it does not fully comply with whole body of the IFRS.The accounting standards so as to off world wide acceptance, there is a need for them to be universally applied. It is necessary to have comparability. Financial statement set prepared using GAAP of country A is not comparable suddenly to some other which is prepared using GAAP of country B since both of them on the top states IFRS (AICPA, 2010). United S tates key regulator priority is the consistent cover of these standards. If to be accordance with the IFRS means the similar and same transactions have to be accounted in same way in every nation, hence preparing financial statements according to IFRS will have to add value.Investors will no longer waste their effort and time in reconciling financial information when comparing to companies which are similar but in different countries (Subramani, 2009). Capital will past flow efficiently and at a low cost to companies in many places. Another major boost for acceptance of the IFRS was seen in 2002as the Norwalk Agreement was being signed and was reaffirmed in the register of Understanding in 2006. IASB in the London together with FASB in the Norwalk agree to remove the differences in their standard sets and converge it on high-quality standards (Ernst & Young, 2009).The emphasis was on high-quality and this meant that if the FASB standards or IASB standard was deemed to be better, then(prenominal) the convergence was would be on the superior one. If n both of them had sufficient standards which would qualify to be used internationally, then the two boards would jointly work together to produce new standards. hold out is on progress in developing a conceptual unmarried framework which will guide in setting future standards. inter piece point between U. S GAAP and IFRS do not mean accounting standards should become identical.It means that in the cases where the transactions are similar or the same, then the accounting should be just the same, or if not so, the disclosures should be transparent to enable reader understand about the differences (Subramani, 2009). Also the standard setters are putting more effort to reduce the difference which is in the two systems. Three significant differences between IFRS and GAAP. The difference between the two set of standards include the following in the US GAAP in the income statement, extraordinary items is restrict ed to some items which are both infrequent and crotchety (McLaughlin, 2009).Negative goodwill usually is tempered as an extraordinary item. In the IFRS, income statement usually prohibits extraordinary items. In the US GAAP the significant items in the income statement are presented separately at the face of income statement just as component of operation going on, where as in the IFRS significant items in the income statement separate the disclosure of nature and also the amount required, but it can be included in income statement or notes (Ernst & Young, 2009). Changes in the equity in U. S PAAF are present in all the changes in every caption of the stockholders equity either in separate statement or foot note.Equity changes in IRFS at least, presents components which are related to expense and income recognised as section of separate statement (AICPA, 2010). Other equity changes are disclosed either in notes or presented as a part of one, combined statement in all equity changes . Three similarities between IFRS and GAAP. In both accounting standards, exchange losses and gains on the settled items and also on the monetary items which are unsettled should be taken to loss or profit for that period. When loss or gain on non-monetary items is directly recognized in equity, then that loss or gain is further taken to the equity (Ernst & Young, 2009).On the other hand if losses or gains on non-monetary item are taken in loss or profit, then related component of exchange would further be included in loss or profit. Functional currency should be currency of primary coil economy in environment the business is operating. The other currencies should be treated or termed as foreign currencies. Presentation of currencies should be currencies used in presenting financial statement and is usually matter of ones survival of the fittest (AICPA, 2010). Financial statements should be prepared by the functional currency of the entity but may be presented by any other form of currency. item-by-item transactions should be translated at rate on date of transaction, or at any average rate for period if the rates do not significantly fluctuate. Identify three potential dangers of IFRS and GAAP convergence. in that respect are several risks which may affect companies as a result of the convergence. They include that the convergence may risk tax rate and hence making it not to be effective to some companies, it may also risk the long term financial agreements and contracts, and it may also risk timing of the revenue recognition (Ernst & Young, 2009).
The cobblers last of a loved one is sometimes traumatizing and portentous and it indeed takes time to en fitted us to heal, especially if the victim of death was a soul mate. In the poem Cold In The humanity, Emily Bronte addresses the aspect of death and love. The persona has lost the love of her animateness and is describing her neer ending love for him despite the obvious separation between them. The octet quatrain poem is dominated by the permanence of death and the changes that atomic number 18 brought close to by its occurrence. Cold In The Earth being a book of f identification numbers to the dead and buried.The repetition that is used in the poem, Far, far creates emphasis on the distance between the cardinal lovers. The persona addresses him as Only hit the sack in capital letters video display the respect and signifi quite a littlece that he was in her life. The rhetorical questions that are asked bring out the personas uncertainty of his absence and devastatio n by his death as these are questions that generally can non be answered. The poet was known to have used paracosm in her writing. Angora, a place that she mentions in the second stanza is perhaps a fantasy world that she created as an act to make herself feel better.Her thoughts were like a bird. They no longer fly. They soil on the grave where they rested their wings. There is very intense lecture and imagery used at this point of the poem. Persona is saying that her thoughts everlastingly land at the grave. Birds are free and fly wherever they revel but they choose to land at the grave. The grave of the man she leave behind always love no matter how far apart the 2 lovers are. She refers to the deceased man as a noble heart showing us that this was indeed someone who was very precious to her. The love of her life has been foregone for fifteen years by the third stanza.She has mourned and suffered capaciously since his death. The browned hills being a metaphor to describe her perhaps immediately by and by the death as being alone and finished completely. Thus her neer ending thoughts to commit suicide and end her life which she thought was emaciated without her love. The hills have now faded away and look like they do in spring. Beautiful, colorful and alive. This shows that time indeed changes things but she will, despite the immense changes, never forget him. She remains faithful to him. The persona begins to ask for forgiveness.She feels that she has forgotten him due to the other never ending demands of her life. just, she assures him that although these demands can sometimes vex in the way of her thoughts of him, they will never make her forget him. However far he is, she will always love and remember him. No other person has ever been so significant and important to her. Whether daytime or night, No other Sun, No other Star, He was a blessing to her. He is a blessing like no other. Every thought she had was of him. The fifth stanza is a constant reminder of her lucid love for him.It is a declaration that nonhing in the universe can overcome her love for him. But the persona continues with a completely distinguishable perspective than that from the beginning of the poem. She accepts that life must go on with time. It does not necessarily have to be an ecstatic joyful life, but alternatively one where she has not given up all hope. The last stanzas are a final declaration of how she feels about the death, her love for him and the intense changes that she has gone through over time. She has grown out of the thoughts of suicide she had had before and accomplished that it was his death and not hers.She must wait for her turn and quickly refuses the thoughts of her dying. She realizes that this was not her grave. Oxymoron is used in the final stanza. Rapture and pain, divinest anguish being two entirely feelings, the purpose is perhaps a description to show that the faithfulness of time and the misery of it have fin ally come together. Her anguish could still be taken away by divine power. We are able to see love, loss, sadness, time and a declaration that life must go on. The nostalgic mood brought about by the persona deeply desire for something she cannot have, her lover.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In most depart of the world, deliveryman christ is non a stranger in excogitation and in fame. Some arrests in the Holy Bible were even consecrate to discussing and retelling the life of deliverer Christ. It could be seen thuslyce that the main(prenominal) writers or proponents regarding the accountancy of deliveryman life and works were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. These four writers wrote the root four track records that could be found in the sore will. As was mentioned earlier, these reserves were devote in telling the redeers about Jesus and how He had come to dominate a part of the world with His teachings.In the book written by Joseph Girzone, he had recreated the stories that could be found in the first books of the New testament and made it reader friendly. In a way, the author had omitted the things that be non part of the story of Jesus life and teachings. He past had spotted up or combined the books in chronological order, from the birth o f Jesus Christ to His death and Resurrection. The first thought that came into my mind is that the book is non completely different than what could be found in the Bible.However, the advantage of having this book is that it is already arranged in a way that would not skirt the readers. The book, Jesus, His Life and Teachings As Recorded by His Friends Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, could be used by those who are only interested in knowing the life of Christ and also His teachings. A person could refer to the Bible, of course, but this book makes it easier to read since the chronological aspect of Jesus stories are already laid down.It was give tongue to that Joseph Grizone had already written books where Joshua is the character and since more and more people are turning towards his concept of Joshua, he then tried to resolve this by publishing the life of Jesus in the light of the Joshua fame (Maudlin). The book then was published in order to counter the influence of Grizones Jo shua. It was not surprising that Grizones character had clicked among the people since most of the people are looking for an example that is highly mortal in disposition. The first picture of the book then is the story concerning the birth of Jesus Christ.Naturally, this aspect of the book covers the story of how Mary was already engaged to Joseph and how Mary was visited by an saint to impart the good news (Girzone). As a chosen woman, she then would carry Jesus in her womb through the Immaculate Conception. some other aspect of the book is Jesus journey in spreading the discourse of God. It could be seen, or read rather, that Jesus had travelled widely with his apostles and wherever He went, blessings and lessons could be received. There were numerous instances where Jesus had swayed the masses towards His occasion just by doing the works of God.This is where His popularity had grown. Along with His popularity then, persecution and accusations had then arisen along with the skepticism of the authenticity of Jesus principles. With the persecution, Jesus then had to undergo hardships from the so-called leaders of the time and was incriminated to die through crucifixion. These hardships could be seen as Jesus Passion. This is where Jesus had to walk along the street and carry the burden of the cross. He was asked to drop out His teachings but Jesus did not try to defend Himself nor revoke what He had already shared about His Father.He then had to suffer in public and die in the cross. In every beginning there is an ending. that this could not be the holistic case of Jesus Christ. He whitethorn have died during the crucifixion but He resurrected from the dead and descended into Heaven to state His spot beside His true Father. This concept of resurrection is important for the believers since it is the sign that Jesus had already left the mortal domain and went to Heaven. Also, this concept would also entail that the sanctity of Jesus could no longer be contested by those who had persecuted Him.It was verbalize that who shall ever believe in Him (Jesus) shall be saved. In this light, Jesus then became the bridge that would cover the gap that man has with God. The book may not have any difference at all from those that are from the New Testament but what Grizone did was to combine the efforts of the four disciples and retold the greatest story. Having a musical theme about the New Testament, the book could be very helpful specially when some parts of the New Testament contain the story of Jesus Christ. A big bulk in studying the New Testament is the part where God had sent His own Son to save us, the sinners.The book then could provide a simple and easy access for the students who indispensability to know the story. However, it should be noted that not all of the contents in the New Testament were included in Grizones book so it should be considered that there could be other sources that can be used. The main point here though i s that Grizones retelling of Jesus story is a much easier version to understand especially when he had already structured what Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John had written in the first four books of the New Testament.
There are legion(predicate) facets of immunity, and in my essay, I will discuss many of these such(prenominal)(prenominal) as independence of momentors line, freedom of beliefs and freedom of actions. When it comes to compensates and freedoms there is a paradox because with bulge responsibilities we concord no effectives and without restrictions we beat no freedom. further what exactly is freedom? The lexicon defines freedom as 1. personal liberty, as from slavery, serfdom etc. 2. liberation, as from confinement or bondage, 3. the quality or state of existence free, esp. to make merry political and civil liberties, 4. exemption or immunity freedom from taxation, 5. the right or privilege of unrestricted use or access the freedom of a city, 6. autonomy, self-government, or independence, 7. the power or liberty to order mavens suffer actions, 8. Philosophy, the quality esp. of the will or the somebody of being unrestrained, 9, ease or frankness of manner she talked with complete freedom, 10. excessive familiarity of manner, 11. ease and grace, as of movement.I will begin with the mortal right to freedom of idiom. We on the whole treat for granted that we confine freedom of lecture, provided some places such as Communist China mystify heavy limits on the freedom the individualist has to draw out their thinking. For example, in 1991, in Tiananme Square, many Chinese students objected to this heavily criminalise regime and there was uproar that led to the death of many students, one even being ran over by a tank. All that for freedom of speech. In Britain, we hand over freedom of speech to an extent, in fact compared to China, we have huge freedom, it is a liberty we take for granted.But should we have that a great deal freedom of speech? Here is an example there is a political party that has headquarters near you. The leaders of this party opine that all plurality whose lineage goes back to other countries should be returned to that country and and white Christians should remain living in Britain. Members of this party pass out leaflets to students from the local secondary school on their way home. Should these individuals freedom of speech be maintained? The answer is that we cant stop stack expressing their opinion.If their freedom is maintained and they continue to spread their racist propaganda, then the leaflets could rock the children who read them to be violent towards other races. (Scenario came from AS Guru website). If the freedom of speech is taken from these individuals then how do we ensure our let freedom of speech will be maintained? What if someone disagrees with us? The reality is that we do have freedom of speech and we cant be halt expressing our opinions, but in some circumstances, the freedom should be curbed to ensure battalion arent offended or hurt by another person. other individual freedom we take for granted in Britain is freedom to opt what religion we are part of or to what ex tent we take our beliefs. For example, Hindus have no choice about their religion because they are born into Hinduism. But most people living in Britain can try whether they want to be Christian, Jewish, Buddhist etc. But should we be allowed to do that? legion(predicate) people join cults in this country and other free states such as America and as a result can be convinced to commit suicide in extreme cases. For example, there have been many mass suicides as a result of cult leaders instructing their vulnerable followers to do so. An example of this sort of incident is the megalomaniac grand Jim Jones case. In November 1978 he ordered the 911 members of his cult to drink cyanide poison subsequently brainwashing them.In cases such as this, should the right of the individual be maintained to allow them to join a cult, or should we throw in and stop them joining in the first place? We can compete that in this kind of case the freedom of the individual should be curbed for the ir own safety, but in reality if we heavily curbed the freedom for one thing, perhaps it would have to be curbed for other individuals for different rights they hold. I believe that everybody has the right to freedom of conscience freedom of religion and spiritual practice, and to exercise them both publicly and privately because everyone is different and the extent and exact details of their beliefs as a result will be different. I do conceptualize though that when it becomes as obsessive as cults that perhaps somebody should intervene, if scarcely for the individuals safety.When we think of our freedom to act however we feel, we think we have complete freedom to conduct ourselves however we please. This is not the case though. We do not have the freedom to murder, rape or beat other people whenever we please. If we commit an offense such as this then we are aerated and in some cases, imprisoned. Should offenders have their personal freedom withdraw as a punishment? My persona l opinion is that if somebody has committed an offence severe enough to be placed in prison, then yes, their physiological freedom should be taken from them. A personal liberty such as being able to walk follow up the street being removed, to me, is a tidy enough punishment.However, sometimes, people have their freedom removed against their will. For example, they are taken hostage. Their liberty is forcefully taken away and so their freedom is curbed. This links to terrorists, because it is usually terrorists who take hostages. What gives terrorists the right to remove a persons freedom? What gives a terrorist the right to fly a plane into a building full of people, knowing they are pass to cause mass devastation such as in the new attack on the USA?Shouldnt their freedom have been curbed to celebrate such a huge loss of life such as in that attack? But there is only an extent as to how much we can curb their freedom to express their opinion. The fact that they chose to expre ss their feelings in such a violent and extravagant manner suggests that individual freedom should be curbed to avoid anything such as horrific accident again, but most people, no matter how they felt, wouldnt show their opinion like that. Perhaps people should feel that they feignt have the individual freedom to commit such a terrible act and then nothing like such as the American attacks.On the subject of freedom of actions, we dont have the freedom to decide whether or not we kick in taxes. For example, where would we finance all of the public work that taxes indemnify for if they didnt exist or if individuals decided not to pay them? Taxes are spent on the National Health Service, the Police Force, put down Service and Roadwork for example. If people didnt pay these taxes then we would have to pay for hospital treatment and to see a doctor etc like in Europe. Street lighting would not be funded and wed walk down dark streets and roads would be full of potholes and have oth er problems. Peoples freedom of choice therefore is curbed, and I think rightly so because other than the services we take for granted would simply not exist.So after looking at the arguments for and against the curbing of individual freedom, I personally believe that it should be curbed in a lot of ways for both the good of the individual and the others around them. Yes, we should be able to freely express our opinion, but in a civilised manner, and we should be free to conduct ourselves in our own ways as long as those methods we use dont hurt other people.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
During the Harlem Renaissance white machination enthusiast aided the development of black workman, by funding these artists. The blue Im Playing by Langston Hughes is a short figment where a young African American pianist, Oceola Jones, who studies music under the relief of Dora Ellsworth. Dora is a wealthy, white middle aged, widow with no children. Langston Hughes uses this connection between these characters to present the meaning of the vapors. The meaning blues isnt very absolved until the very end of the story, when Oceola and Ms.Ellsworth had their fallout. Ms. Ellsworth is very upset when she learns that Oceola wants to marry Pete Williams. Dora believes that marriage go out burden her protegee talents. Hell take all the music out of you (pg 475). Oceola is playacting the piano one last time for Ms. Ellsworth before she leaves to Europe. They begin to plead while Oceola is playing one of Beethoven sonatas. As they continue to designate Osceolas change the style of playing to the Negro Blues. As Osceola plays on Dora ask Is this what I spent thousands of dollars to teach you? (pg 475) Oceola replies No, this is mine Listen. (pg 475) Oceolas blues began to flourish. Blues that Oceola plays only comes in a time of distress. The fight between Oceola and Ms. Ellsworth force the blues out of Oceola. The Blues in this story represents Oceola solid cutaneous senses about love, music and art. According to Ralph Ellison the blues is an impulse to livelihood painful details and episodes of a brutal existence alive in ones aching consciousness This definition and Langston Hughess adaptation of Blues seem to not conform to each other.Ellison is saying that the artist of the blues has to have a hardship in their past to crush out it in the blues. In Hughess story Oceola really never had anything in her past that made express the blues like she did. It was more that she couldnt outlet her frustration of Ms. Ellsworth and her feeling of art to anyone. Oceola bottle up the feeling and lashed out at the end to Ms. Ellsworth in a blues song. Ellisons and Hughess definitions are both good interpretation of what the blues are. By combining Ellisons and Hughess interpretation we have a go through definition of what the blues really are.The Blues is a kind of drive inthat evolved from the music of African-Americans, especially work songs and spirituals. Blues pieces often express interest or depression. The songs help keep remembrance of past hardship experienced and help cope with future problem that may come. The patronage of whites helped the African American art and music explode during the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes uses the connection between Oceola and Ms. Ellsworth to express his interpretation of the Blues. Hughess and Ellisons definitions help explain what the blues in reality are.
The hero of an epic is characterized by their extraordinary abilities and strength which answered them to meet entirely the ch every(prenominal)enges they privation to face along their journey. They atomic number 18 the primary(prenominal) subjects of these long narrative epic poems. The epic hero is separated from the rest of the people. They be universe admired by others for their ability to do what ordinary serviceman would non attempt to do. The birth of these heroes was taken account into. These men are bandaged to play an principal(prenominal) role in their society. They also became the reflection of the set of their society. Epic heroes are mythical characters taken from the ancient cartridge clips.These heroes are epic because of their impressive and heroic deeds that can surpass what ordinary man can do. More specifically an epic hero must posses indisputable qualities to recognize him as a real epic hero. They must receive great physical strength. They are more than clever and cunning than the ordinary. They are adventurous and brave. They are not easily intimidated or frighten by the challenges ahead of them. They impart goals and are highly determined to relieve oneself their quest for something they believed is of great value for him and to his people. They are victorious most of the time with the disputes they encounter.Their success gave them recognition. Their society may choose him to be their rightful loss leader or ruler because of the marvelous thing they proved they can do. subsequently learning this things about an epic hero one can notice among epic poems this pattern of the heroes characteristic. They seem to be similar in more ways. Along with other epic heroes of all times are the call like Beowulf, Gilgamesh and Odysseus. Looking at how each of the heroes had transformed themselves through the assorted test and preparation they undertake in the beginning they are recognize as heroic leading.They come from different backgrounds and culture which they typically embodies. Beowulf the Old incline Epic Who is Beowulf? What was his exploits? What values where important in his society? These are the questions that provide guide us to discover more about the epic hero Beowulf. This epic poem had been written in England though the setting of the horizontal surface could have been in Scandinavia. Beowulf as many knew is one of the most important surviving Anglo-Saxon classic literatures. This epic was believed to have been written among the 8th and 11th centuries. (Foster, 2003) Beowulf was recognized as a Geat.He was cognize by others as a super human. One of his greatest achievements was when he defeated Grendel in an encounter. Beowulf fought one-on-one with Grendel which was known as a behemoth an enemy of the people of that time. Beowulf came to rescue the people of that kingdom from Grendel. To show his made defeat of Grendel he brought plateful Grendels head. During the struggl e, he won because of the help of a magical giant sword. Beowulf then also battle with Grendels mother who was plunge deep into the earth. He faced alone the ogre institute in the underworld. After he won in this mishap he didnt become immediately the new king.He fought for the lot along with King Hygelac. King Hygelac died during a snap and was then offered the sight but he refused and let the kings son get the throne. Because of his many heroic acts the Danes were please. The Danes and the Geats are then united. The people now expect Beowulf to be their new king. He must face other more dangers to prove himself worthy to be called the King of the Geats. His last battle winding a fight with a dragon. By that time he was in old age and has been ruling the Geats when the dragon came and threatened his kingdom. He need to defeat this dragon to save his people from danger.He must try his own life to achieve his goal of saving the kingdom. In this battle he successfully killed the dragon but it left him seriously wounded. He then had to face his death. Odysseus The Greek Mythical Hero After Beowulf is other famous epic hero by the name of Odysseus. Odysseus also with Latin name Ulysses was the reigning ruler of the island kingdom of Ithaca. (Hunter, 1997) unlike Beowulf this man was already enthroned as a king. In the Trojan War he was the appoint heroic figure meaning he was among the well known leaders of the Trojan War. Odysseus was actually reluctant to join the expedition.Even if he doesnt want to join the battle he still fought heroically in the Trojan War. He even led the dangerous nocturnal raid together with Diomedes. It was believed that Odysseus was one of the originators of the Trojan horse which were used by the Greeks to ultimately take over the city of Troy. His journey was specially guided by divine intervention. After the Trojan War Odysseus next quest is to successfully return home with his family. Now returning back on his family was his main goal but the journey is very difficult and there are many things he needed to pass through.He also necessitate to face the underworld just like Beowulf who fought in the world of the dead. The passing with Odysseus is that he didnt fight but rather talk and occupy some questions. In this journey he came to the point that he need to choose between mortality and immortality. He chose mortality because he wants his home together with his wife genus Penelope. Going back home he encountered different tragedies like when his ship was destroyed by a thunderbolt and a storm and when he was trapped in island of the Nymph Calypso.Many things have happened after the war and on the way home. When Odysseus came at last he found that there were problems in Ithaca also. It took about twenty years before he successfully returned to his home. He found out that his wife Penelope had remained faithful to him all through those years even though there are pressures for her to get married again. He arrived at the palace and found the suitors of his wife. He pretended to be a beggar and destroyed all of them afterwards.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Children of a lesser God is a love story about a livery instructor who falls for a beautiful yet distant deaf girl in a small New England school for the deaf, and the obstacles that they saying due to their differences. William Hurt plays throng Leeds, a renegade teacher with an unlawful approach to education and a resume that includes stints as a bartender and a disk jockey. Upon his arrival, he is warned by school administrator Dr. Franklin (Philip Bosco)not to tug creative with his instruction.Naturally, Leeds al considery has his mind set on his teaching political program and proceeds to play loud rock music in partitioning in order to teach the pupils to feel the vibrations of the music and get them to generate to mouth phonetically. But a new element enters his career when he meets the attractive custodian, Sarah Marlee martin. An exceptionally intelligent yet extremely bitter schoolgirlish woman, Sarah is a graduate of the school who has decided to remain there, i n the trammel of her world of silence its safer for her to be with her own people than to look what she perceives as a cruel and uncaring world.She hardly seems interested in James and will only communicate with him through signing, although she can read lips and even speak a little. James learns from Sarahs mother ( genus Piper Laurie) that Sarah was sexually molested as a teenager this explains why she is so leery of his attempts to form a relationship with her and why she is so full of fear. Eventually, James does get through to Sarah and the two fall in love, although both put up to learn new ways to communicate their feelings.Though it seldom resembles the curb medoff play on which it was based, this directing debut from Randa Haines won an Best Actress Oscar for Matlin, for her runner screen performance. In this photo a special education teacher named John goes to work at a school for the deaf. Throughout the movie John acts more as an Audiologist and tries to get all of the deaf students to buy the farm speaking.To help the students learn to speak John teaches them to count the beats of music using the feeling of vibrations. With the help of John almost every student learns to articulate at least some words. The relevance in parley disorder in this movie is speaking greatly improves the students social life and communication ability which improves the quality of their life. Giving them patience and chance to speak in their own language even their deaf.
Can a man be as vast as a nation? Did the c atomic number 18r-experiences and cultural offices of a maven individual play as pivotal a role in the establishment of American democracy and American horticulture as both written declaration, constitution, or law? Without a doubt, there be historians who bear at the crap to assert that gum benzoin Franklin was merely much(prenominal) an individual. umpteen books, scholarly articles, essays, encyclopedias, and even works of fiction have headd and continue to contri merelye to the apologueical status of Benjamin Franklin in American history.However, there is is favourable rea word of honor to reject any surface-level interpretation of Franklins important contributions to the cosmos of American Democracy, and read with with child(p) c be the complex and extensive developing of Franklins actions and stated philosophies over the span of a great many a(prenominal) years. The resulting image of Franklin when the story of Franklin and the diachronic Franklin ar compared is angiotensin-converting enzyme of a challengingly doubtful and complex thinker, and of a man who acted in keeping with his unintelligibleest philosophical, moral, and spiritual beliefs many of which were quite radical in his twenty-four hours and many of which were astonishingly traditional.The truth of the matter is that Franklins extant literary productions are so adequate and voluminous that i can find almost any word be of Franklin one and only(a) wishes to find, (Frasca, 2007) but, certainly, in comparing the diachronic Franklin to the fictionologic Franklin, important cleverness into American history and into the psychology of American culture can be gained.Franklins career can be said to have begun actually(prenominal)(prenominal) betimes in his bread and butter story, when he left fieldfield school at 10 years of age to help his father (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007) non large later on, he was apprentice d to his half br different James, a gradeer and publisher of the novel England Courant, to which young Ben secretly contributed. After much disagreement he left his br opposites employment and went (1723) to Philadelphia to work as a printer (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007).Franklins early life was later make upn its first throw out toward mythic status with posthumous publication of Franklins Autobiography in 1791, non long after Franklins death. If the Autobiography helped to foster the mythic status of Franklin in American history, it was but one of the many examples of Franklins written contributions to American culture. During his active career, Franklin was immersed non further in attainment and history, but in philosophy and good theory as well.His prevalent writings contained both peevishness and moral axioms notably in his very general publication, Poor Richards Almanac, which was In his day the great inauguration of profit to every printer which was issued yea rly, and which was the vade-mecum in every household that could point little the necessary two or three pence annually (Ford, 1899, p. 400). Franklins loyal contributions to American popular culture during his lifetime included not only the folk wisdom of Poor Richard, but with much- needful humor for the American guilelessIn America, however, either because the immigrants had been recruited from the unfortunate and the spiritually austere, or because the hardness of the builds resulted in a sadness which tinctured the lives of the people, there seems to have been a practical extinction of all sense of the humorous. (Ford, 1899, p. 388) Against this back endground, Franklin himself often a deep-thinker and a moody mortal articulated the first instances of a natively American sense of humor.This detail is very important in evaluating both the mythical and the diachronic Franklin because the mythic Franklin ashes empty of all but a few slight traces of Franklins triumphan t career and reputation as a humorist. His status as such is very important because, as mentioned, it is Franklins cultural contribution to America as well as his political contributions which cements his status as a Founding Father and which has resulted in the extensive influence Franklin has held over American culture from its earliest bring forthnings.Franklin utilize humor in a very conscious path to pave the way for his more considered ethical and moral ideas more importantly he seized the opportunity to define humor in America for generations perhaps his most remarkable attribute is that the approaching historian of the now famous American humor must begin its history with the first publication of Poor Richard (Ford, 1899, p. 389) and, by doing so, Franklin placed himself in a chance upon position to define with humor just what it mean to be an American.His capacities as a humorist do not seem to have been affected, but rather emerged naturally out of his personalised ity. Franklin used humor to not only define himself and to uncompletely define American culture, but as a method to settle scores or take shots at traditional beliefs or institutions His irresistible inclination to copulate a joke out of everything is illustrated by the scrapes he got himself into with his advertisers. Employed to print an announcement of the sailing of a ship, he added an N. B. of his ingest, to the effect that among the passengers No sea Hens, nor Black Gowns exit be admitted on any terms. Some of the clergy, the right way incensed, withdrew their subscriptions from the Gazette. Yet this did not cure him of the tendency, and he was quickly offending again. (Ford, 1899, p. 394) idea and literary works provided one means for Franklin to influence the development of early American culture and these aspects are slightly contained in the myth of Benjamin Franklin, with the humorous aspects downplayed.For example, Poor Richards Almanac is probably part of the F ranklin myth in most peoples brainiacs and they probably also are aware that Franklin offered axioms of wisdom in this Almanac, but many people are probably deeply unaware that Franklins gift for humor was not only an important part of his literary output, but an aspect of his personal philosophy and a method by which he engaged other people and also helped to resolved conflicts. Another aspect of the Franklin myth is that he invented electricity by tying a key to a kite-string. kindred many myths, this myth has a basis in historical candor His experiment of flying a kite in a th understorm, which showed that lightning is an galvanizing discharge and his invention of the lightning rod won him recognition from the leading scientists in England (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007) but it is a slim basis. What the lightning and key myth re typifys in a compressed form is the long and complex contribution to the natural sciences and to popular inventions which actually was a part of the hist orical Franklins career.In realizes to his actual scientific achievements, Franklin is notable by historians to have been a brilliant inventor and adapter of breathing technologies He repeated the experiments of other scientists and showed his usual practical bent by inventing such diverse things as the Franklin stove, bifocal eyeglasses, and a glass harp (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007) he is regarded as having a very brilliant scientific mind and a keen sense of practical implementation of abstract ideas.These qualities are also present in Franklins philosophical and political ideas which will be discussed soon and to rifleher, Franklins scientific, philosophical. and political vision actually hold with the popular aesthetic already shown to have been a part of his literary output. In some ways, Franklins cultural contributions mirror a deeply democratic sense of purpose and fulfillment the creation of common axioms, a common wisdom, along with useful technologies are not separate from Franklins political vision.Ironically, the democraticism which is inferred in Franklins guiding principles is less present on the surface in his specifically political writings. When specifically considering Franklins political beliefs and writings, it should be pointed out that Franklin was actually very different from the other Founding Fathers. He was older and more committed to the British imperium and certainly more cosmopolitan and urbane than they were (Morgan, 2005, p.551) and because Franklin lived abroad for just under twenty years in England and having traveled a lot through Europe, Franklin was in many ways the least American of the revolutionaries (Morgan, 2005, p. 551). This duality in the historical Franklin is, of division, completely absent from the lightning and key mythic Franklin who is regarded as a Founding Father of American democracy.This last idea of the myth of Franklin is confessedly enough, but as this paper has hopefully shown, the historical ensure of Franklin is a more ambiguous and much more complex than the myth. This is an understandable condition because part of what myth does with historical events is to simplify them and streamline them so that the emblematic impact can be made more right on and less diluted by alternate interpretation.It would be difficult if not impossible, for example, to take a mythic vision of Franklin which included the historical reality that Franklin like the social and intellectual life of London to that of Philadelphia (Morgan, 2005, p. 551) or that his landlady, Margaret Stevenson, and her precocious daughter, Polly, provided Franklin with more compatible intellectual companionship than did his own wife and daughter (Morgan, 2005, p.551) so these very real and very important aspects of Franklins actual life and his actual personality are absent from the Franklin myth. Yet these aspects, and others, are super important in helping to define and understand what exactly Franklin contr ibuted as a Founding Father of American democracy. That his cultural contributions, whether humorous, literary, or scientific not only fostered his myth but actually altered the course and evolution of American society is demonstrable by way of historical evidence.What, then, were Franklins political contributions to the early American nation? Did Franklin evidence as much resourcefulness and thoroughness in his political career as he evidenced in his career as a printer, or humorist, or inventor? One very interesting aspect of Franklins life is that he dealt with not only the revolt of the American colonies against a British Empire which he loved, but also with the resulting estrangement from his own (illegitimate) son during the course of the war.Franklins actions at the outbreak of the Revolutionary struggle give a solid glimpse into his sympathies and beliefs at the time As annoy between the British government and the colonies grew with the approach of the American Revolution, Franklins deep love for his native land and his devotion to individual freedom brought (1775) him back to America. There, era his illegitimate son, William Franklin, was becoming a leader of the Loyalists, Benjamin Franklin became one of the greatest statesmen of the American Revolution and of the newborn nation.(Franklin, Benjamin, 2007) As a statesman, Franklins contributions can be at least to some degree quantified and cited he was postmaster general, a delegate to the Continental Congress, an appointee and signatory to the committee which wrote the contract bridge of Independence, he was also sent to Canada with Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll of Carrollton to persuade the people of Canada to marijuana cigarette the patriot cause (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007).The mythic vision of Franklin as a powerful statesman delivering powerful, moving oratory before the Continental Congress, or laboriously poring over draft versions of the Declaration of Independence are confronted by an ecdotes of historical fact. An example of this is John Adams, who contemptuously described a Franklin from day to day sitting in silence, a great part of the time debased asleep in his chair and sighed that he was likely nevertheless to get credit for everything achieved by the Congress, (Lopez & Herbert, 1975, p. 203).Again, Franklins political reputation was based not so much in his perception among his American colleagues, but in his foreign popularity and fame. His best tactic was not spell-binding oratory or conglomerate legalese, but in injecting a calm pronouncement or a bit of humor (Lopez & Herbert, 1975, p. 203) into difficult political processes. The question still mud as to what Franklin, personally, believed roughly the American Revolution during the time of the revolt and afterward and whether or not Franklin can be accurately described as a firm believer in democratic principles.The historical facts provoke that Franklin held conflicting views about democracy a nd royalist rule. On the one hand, he advocated personal liberty, on the other, he seemed reluctant to dismiss with the notion of a royalist government altogether. As he wrote in the Autobiography, his feelings were not at all certain during the time of the approaching revolution In our way thither I projected and drew up a be after for the union of all the colonies under one government, so cold as cogency be necessary for defense, and other important general purposes (Franklin, 1914, p.131) but here there is no mention of a constitution or a strong Federal government at all. Franklins own visions for a single-chamber congress and a weak executive council were rejected (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007) and, alter, although he objected to aspects of the final Constitution, he helped to direct the compromise and worked earnestly for its ratification (Franklin, Benjamin, 2007).The picture which emerges of Franklin as a politician is one of a man whose core-principles were challenged by the birth of a new government, but who fought resolutely on behalf of the new nation without regard for the degree to which it mirrored, exactly, his always-evolving personal beliefs. In addition to the differences which are evident between Franklin the myth and Franklin the historical figure in regard to his literary, scientific, and political contributions to American history, two other areas of Franklins life are absent from the mythological figure of Franklin his apparitional and racial convictions.Of course, it is absolutely full-strength that Franklins religious convictions and his views on race and ethnicity evolved throughout his lifetime. On the other hand, Franklins religious beliefs seemed to occupy a central place in his interpretation of his own lifes purpose and the meaning of his life. Where pietism is concerned, Franklins most intimate beliefs depict a rather traditional point of view.Because of his personal experiences and personal fortunes, Franklin tended to view the arc of his life in rather conventional religious terms Scattered through his writings are sentences full of gratitude to God for His favor in lifting him up from such a low to such a high estate, in carry him substantially unscathed through the graver dangers and baser temptations of human life, and in affording him the bureau that the divine goodness, of which he had received such signal proofs in his career, would not cease with his death (Bruce, 1917, p.51) these simple, but enduring, beliefs are easily compatible with many forms of American Christianity. That said, it would be very difficult to trace an influence from Franklin to groundbreaking Christianity, nor an influence of Christianity directly on the myth of Franklin. In both fact and in myth, Franklins traditional religious ideas are downplayed due, presumably, to their existence prominently in keeping with the common ideas of Franklins time. Interestingly enough, Franklin retained his religious convictions at th e close of his very eventful life and the fruition of his religious convictions strengthened him in old age and in death.As one of his biographers wrote WHEN THE DAY CAME, April 17, 1790, he was ready. All his life he had been gingerly taming death, stripping it of its awe and power, clothing it in appealing metaphors of travel and bliss, humoring it, handsome it a place in the family circle (Lopez & Herbert, 1975, p. 308) and because of his receptiveness to deeply held religious convictions which were, nonetheless, not tied to any kind of dogma or unappeasable adherence to religious doctrine, Franklins religious philosophies and his actual death are gestures, also, of a democratic sprit and and individualist.The conflict which the religious side of the historical Franklin presents for the mythic vision of Franklin is difficult to articulate. It has to do with the fact that, while Franklins individual take on Christian principles and religious ideas does, in fact, make a very co mpatible fit with the American notion of individual liberty, Franklins avoidance of traditional dogma and doctrine results in making his individualistic religious beliefs more difficult to define and picture to a popular audience.Just as there is no easy mythical spirit for Franklins humor, as there is for his scientific prowess, there is no ready mythic symbol for his peculiarly individualistic religious beliefs which are root in traditional Christianity. Just as Franklins religious attitudes stop to find mythic expression, his ambiguous views on race and racial bias also are a poor fit for the Franklin myth.The attentive observer of history will take into consideration that at various points in his life, Franklin was demonstrably racist and xenophobic Franklin was clearly unhappy about the great number of Germans who were immigrating to his home town of Philadelphia, even though many back up him by patronizing his printing business (Lapham & Saunders, 2005) and also, Frankl in prior to the Revolutionary War grumbled about Philadelphias bilingual (English and German) street signs and complained that the Pennsylvania parliament needed to use translators (Lapham & Saunders, 2005).In addition to these historical facts, there is evidence that Franklin was not only racist, but perhaps a bit paranoid about other races and cultures. He wrote on one occasion, That the Number of purely white People in the World is proportionably very small. (Lapham & Saunders, 2005) which in and of itself might be considered merely an observation of fact until it is paired with Franklins words, which preceded the educational activity Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them (Lapham & Saunders, 2005).These kinds of historical details and indications of Franklins character have no place in the Franklin myth. Their impact on the historical influence of Franklin is one which is very multiform and fascinating because the evolution of Franklins thoughts and actions in regard to issues of race underwent a profound change throughout his life.Although Franklin seemed to regard one race being in conflict with another in some of his writings, he nevertheless, was elect to be president of one of the first anti-slavery societies in America, (Lapham & Saunders, 2005) and he went on to help to create black schools, assist free blacks to obtain work, resurrect family-friendly values, and improve the social conditions black children (Lapham & Saunders, 2005).The most important aspect of Franklins views on racism is that his ideas evolved over his lifetime, becoming more tolerant and egalitarian as he grew older (Lapham & Saunders, 2005), however, even such a spectacular and ultimately positivistic aspect of Franklins historical biography is left out of the Franklin myth. A letter to Franklin from his sister seems to encapsulate the very kinds of ambig uities and vagaries which the myth of Franklin exists to erase.His sister remarks of the American revolution to Propagate Is stufed into them, & it is Dificult to know whither Either society are in the Right. for my Part I wish we had Let but strife before it was medled with & folowed things that make for Peace (Van Doren, 1950, p. 107) and from this letter and others like it, the young observer is able to glean at least a partial understanding that ideas and conflicts in Franklins time were no more clear, no more black and white than they are in our own.In conclusion, while the myth of Benjamin Franklin, the man who discovered electricity with a key tied to a kite, the man who wrote the Declaration of Independence, a man who is one of the Founding Fathers of America, is a powerful and enduring myth, the historical facts of Franklins long and eventful life offer and a more authentic deterrent example of early-American philosophy, politics, and culture.The conflict between the my th of Franklin and Franklin the historical figure is rooted in the fact that historical truths are often ambiguous, complex and difficult to express succinctly, whereas myth, while sacrificing authenticity often makes a far more opportunist impact on popular consciousness. Franklin the historical figure achieved a far greater influence practically over the development of American culture and American politics than the myth is capable of expressing however, the historical facts of Franklins life also sometimes stand in stark opposition to the myth which they, at least in part, began.References Bruce, W. C. (1917). Benjamin Franklin, Self-Revealed A Biographical and diminutive Study Based Mainly on His Own Writings (Vol. 1). untested York G. P. Putnams Sons. Franklin, Benjamin. (2007). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed. ). New York Columbia University Press. Ford, P. L. (1899). The deep-lobed Franklin. New York The Century Co. Franklin, B. (1914). The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. New York Macmillan. Frasca, R. (2007). Benjamin Franklin Unmasked On the Unity of His Moral, Religious, andPolitical Thought. The Historian, 69(2), 359+. Lapham, S. S. , & Saunders, A. (2005). Benjamin Franklins Evolving Views on Race and Ethnicity. affectionate Education, 69(1), 13+. Lopez, C. , & Herbert, E. W. (1975). The Private Franklin The Man and His Family. New York W. W. Norton. Morgan, D. T. (2005). The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. The Historian, 67(3), 551. Van Doren, C. (Ed. ). (1950). The letter of Benjamin Franklin & Jane Mecom. Princeton, NJ
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Aristotle (384-322 B. C. E. ), the son of a physician, was the educatee of Plato from approximately 367 B. C. until his mentors death in 348/347. After carrying on philosophical and scientific investigations elsewhere in the Greek world and circumstances as the tutor to Alexander the Great, he returned to Athens in 335 B. C. E. to make the Lyceum, a major philosophical center, which he used as his storey for prolific investigations into many areas of philosophy.Aristotle is a towering figure in quaint Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dancing and theatre. As a prolific writer and polymath, Aristotle radically transformed intimately, if non all, areas of knowledge he touched. It is no peculiarity that Aquinas referred to him simply as The Philosopher. In his lifetime, Aristotle wrote as many as 200 treatises, of which only 31 survive.Unfortunately for us, these plant are in the form of lecture notes and draft manuscripts never intended for general readership, so they do not demonstrate his reputed polished prose style which attracted many massive followers, including the Roman Cicero. Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such(prenominal) as mathematics, biology, and ethics. Some of these classifications are serene used today. There has been long dead reckoning that the original Poetics comprised two adjudges, our extant Poetics and a lost twinkling book that supposedly dealt with engenderdy and catharsis.No firm evidence for the existence of this second book has been adduced. Our (knowledge of the text of the Poetics depends principally on a manuscript of the ten percent or eleventh century and a second manuscript dating from the fourteenth century. (not to write in notes)*. Aristotle could be considered the first popular literary critic. Unlike Plato, who all but condemned written verse, Aristotle breaks it down and analyses it so as to separate the good from the bad. On a number of subjects Aristotle developed positions that most-valuablely differed from those of his teacher.We very clearly note this profound difference of opinion with Plato and, indeed, disclose the overt correction of his erst eyepatch master in Aristotles literary and aesthetic theories. Aristotelian aesthetics directly contradicts Platos negative take of art by establishing a potent intellectual role. The principal antecedent of our knowledge of Aristotles aesthetic and literary theory is the Poetics, but alpha supplementary information is found in other treatises, chiefly the Rhetoric, the Politics, and the Nicomachean Ethics.Aristotles main contribution to criticism may well be the supposition that poetry is after all an art with an object of its own, that it can be rationally understood and reduced to an intelligible set of rules (that is, it is an art, consort to the comment in the Ethics). The main concern of the rules of the Poetics, however, is not with the composition of literary works it is rather with their critical evaluation. Consequently, criticism can be a science, and not a mass of random principles and intuitions. Aristotle speaks of the educative value of visual, musical and oral arts.Both the Rhetoric and the Poetics can be considered to be expansions of this view. We might secern that Aristotle sets literature free from Platos radical moralism and didacticism, while he still expects it to be conformable to a moral understanding of the world. For him, literature is a rational and beneficial activity, and not an irrational and dangerous unrivaled, as it was for Plato. Aristotle? s approach to literature is mainly philosophical he is more implicated with the nature and the structure of poetry than with its origin.The origins of poetry had been grounded on the instinct of assumed which is natural to man. The first poetical works were spontaneo us improvisations. The origins of the different genres is reassert by Aristotle thus Poetry soon branched into two channels, according to the temperaments of individual poets. The more serious-minded among them represented noble actions and the doings of noble persons, while the more trivial wrote about the meaner sort of people thus, while the one type wrote hymns and panegyrics, these others began by writing invectives.(Poetics II). The development goes through serious or comic epic poems such as those written by home run to comedy and tragedy these new forms were both grander and more highly regarded than the sooner (Poetics II). Aristotle does not, however, decide on whether tragedy (and by implication, literature) has already developed as far as it can but he does assert that it has come to a standstill.Aristotle makes a brief outline of the narration of tragedy At first the poets had used the tetrameter because they were writing satyr-poetry, which was more closely relate d to the dance but once dialogue had been introduced, by its very nature it stimulate upon the right measure, for the iambic is of all measures the one best suited to address . . . . Another change was the increased number of episodes, or acts. (Poetics II). Aristotle also deals shortly with the rise of comedy the early history of comedy. . .is obscure, because it was not taken seriously. funniness had already acquired certain clear-cut forms before there is any take down of those who are named as its poets. Nor is it known who introduced masks, or prologues, or a face pack of actors, and other things of that kind. Of Athenian poets Crates was the first to discard the lampoon pattern and to watch stories and plots of a more general nature. (Poetics II). The work of Aristotle as a consentaneous may be considered to be an attempt to develop a morphological and metalinguistic approach to literature.Although it preserves a concern with valuation, its main thrust is towards th e commentary of theoretical possibilities and general laws. Some critics have spoken of Aristotles drop the ball of omission in relationship with lyric poetry and the inspirational fixings in literature. This is a fact. But it does not seem so important when we look at what Aristotle does say and the principles he establishes. We can barely own the aspect of criticism after Aristotles work, if we compare it to its previous state. His is the most important single contribution to criticism in the whole history of the discipline.
The apostle dent addressed the crowd for the first time after(prenominal) the Holy looking at had come down on the apostles and the disciples on the day of the Pentecost.The crowd was astounded as they had heard them speaking in languages that they could understand. They knew they were Galileans but the crowd as make up of stack from all over the region, including Parthians, Medes, Elamites.The quotation followed after a clarification from Peter that they were non drunk, instead they were speaking in tongues because of the pouring of the Holy Spirit. They were besides prophesying in the Spirit. Prophecy was something that was prominent in messiahianity and it was highlighted in the bare-assed Testament Christianity.The verses showed a relationship with how the Christians was conscious with the tactual sensation of fortune telling and how it had returned to them as community (Perrin 62). The importance they had attached it was evident in this speech that was a passage unders tood to be about the quit of time as it was being fulfilled among them.Historically, the book of Joel was grouped with pre-exilic prophets such(prenominal) as Amos and Micah. But there was little data to pinpoint the withdraw period by which it was written. If it was a plague of locusts, there was no data available for it. On the other hand, if locusts stood for an army invasion, there was little pinch as to which threat it was (Barton 15).The entire book of Joel was seen to have no conterminous relevance to anyone but had messages of how God would pour out spirit on all flesh as fulfilled in the book of Acts (Barton 3).Joel 228-32 was written in a context wherein there was an emphasis that not every one could benefit from the new order that was to come, not even out everyone in Israel but only call on the name of the sea captain (Barton 7).The previous passages before this verse represented Joels plea for the plurality to render their hearts to the Lord because of who God i s. It was followed by how the Lord called His people to come back into His care.The general flow of the story started with presenting the dire enjoin of the nation by which they need to proclaim a public bereavement (Barton 14). Following this lament, there were Gods promises for damages as healthy as a glorious future.Difference in MeaningThe quotation in the New Testament also referred to the gift of the Spirit that was connected to the prediction Joel had do about how it would be given to mark the last days. In Joels time, the reference to the last days was not used. It was inserted precisely because it was the Apostolic church service and it was an eschatological event that took place (Filson 72).(Filson 72). There were significant additions and changes that Peter had made in his speech that quoted the prophet Joel. The quotation was opened up with In the last days, God says (Acts 17) as well as they shall prophesy (Acts 18) that was not originally seen in the Old Testamen t passage (Perrin & Duling 62).However small the additions to the verses were, they provided for a deeper meaning and significance especially in the context by which it was enunciate in the New Testament.The prophet prophesied of the days of the Lord, something that was still connected to the restoration that God would bring from the period of lamentation and strife in the country. It was see in the New Testament to be the start of the fulfillment of the prophecy for the last days.While in the book of Joel, there was only one company of signs that indicated the approach shot of the day of the Lord, the book of Acts showed two sets of signs that referred to the sky above and the basis beneath (Perrin & Duling 62).This referred to the differences in the time period. The signs of the sky above were about the signs that were spectacular and were still waiting to be fulfilled.On the other hand, the signs of the earth below referred to the coming of Jesus and how he fulfilled this p rophecy that pointed to the signs of the last days (Perrin & Duling 62).The additions were also significant in how the people saw themselves and characterized themselves as a community.While in the context in the book of Joel referred to these signs to be the immediate experience and close at hand(predicate) expectation, the New Testament interpretation also referred to the Christians time of being the End Time community wherein they were experiencing the first act of the presage drama that would shortly be followed by the second coming of Christ (Perrin & Duling 62).
Saturday, February 23, 2019
prison house house house houses release 650,000 offenders to the popular annually and 70% of those exoffenders provide commit new offenses within threesome years (Fields, 2005, p. A4). According to the JFA Institute (2007), two-thirds of the 650,000 prison house house admissions be flock who literalize failed probation or paroleapproximately half of these people have been send to prison for technical violations (p. 1). As prison crowding occurs, prison officials ar challenged to clench gyps use up by assigning them to nut-bearing tasks and incorpo identify sanativeal platforms (Center for Justice & Reconciliation, 2007).If vicious justice professionals fail to keep up with program expectations, program shortages whitethorn influence inmate idleness resulting in disruptions, prison violations, and mental- health issues related to stress and depression (Fields). During 2003 and 2004, approximately 900 outlaws entered the nations jails and prisons each week bas ed on a report issued in April 2006 by the U. S. part of Justice, Office of Justice Programs (p. 1). Jails and prisons in the U. S.house much people with mental illnesses than many of the inpatient psychiatric facilities, and virtually all punitive facilities experience the impact of this population that is increasing at an unprecedented rate (McCuan, Prini, & Wasarhaley, 2007). During 2006, 41% of inmate assailants were listed under the mental health caseload (Collins, 2006). In 2006, the U. S. incision of Justice released statistics revealing that 23% of country prisoners reported symptoms of major depression. An estimated 61% of state prisoners and 44% of jail inmates who had a mentalhealth business also had a history of past violent behavior. In a 1999 report (Dawn, 2007), the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill reported that in that respect argon three times as many seriously mentally ill individuals in prison and jails than there are being toughened in hospitals. Eq ually disturbing is that the criminal justice system will have some example of experience with 25 to 40% of the mentally ill in the U. S. population. Inmates with mental illness present additional phthisis problems for prison systems already overburdened by population demands.The influx has challenged criminal justice professionals to extend their budgets to cover the costs of appropriate schedule for every offender in an effort to minimize potential inmate unrest, a situation that clears to assaults and other infractions associated with idleness (Wilkinson, 1998). In 2007, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and rectification (DRC) reached a population milestone with a count of 50,000 offenders. As the inmate population rises in Ohio prisons, the possibility of inmate assaults may also go up because overcrowding exacerbates the chronic pains of imprisonment (Haney, 2006, p. 2). One steering to performa potential increase in assaults is to keep offenders engaged in some typ e of connection activity and participating in therapeutic programs. Some officials reported that therapeutic programs and community service theoretically should be one of the most effective ways to engage an inmates time and energy and keep infractions at a manageable level. DRC views the involvement of inmates in community service and therapy as vital to their release. Ohio prison director Terry Collins stated that ex-offenders who served as program participants during their imprisonment alleviate close the gap between themselves and their communities.As a result, these inmates are separate prepared to function as lawabiding citizens because they have stayed in touch with the community and have given something of value back (Collins, 2007, p. 1). Very crowded prison systems are difficult to manage (Wilkinson, 1998, p. 76). As prison crowding occurs, prison officials are challenged to keep inmates busy by assigning them to productive tasks. substantially prison management is engaging prisoners in meaningful activities such as educational programs and work assignments (Wilkinson, p. 76).The most important single factor (among many) that helps to let off the current crisis in American correctionsthe lack of effective programming and treatment (Haney, 2007, p. 76). Although prison jobs such as mopping floors, kitchen duty, and making prison garments occupy inmates time, more meaningful community service as a restorative justice measure may be an effective way to foretell the challenge of prison crowding (Center for Justice & Reconciliation, 2007). The meaningful expectation is critical because it may help to instill responsibility and a changed office about criminalactivity (Wilkinson, p. 76). Prisons in the United States are face the challenges of crowding including inmate idleness as it relates to programming expectations. Lack of programming in prison is a serious safety and security nemesis to the staff, the common, and the offenders. As inmate populations increase, once stable prison systems can reverse volatile environments and endanger prison staff and the systems they are charged with protect (Gaes, 1994). When criminal justice professionals fail to keep up with programming expectations, program shortages may influence inmate idleness.Inmate idleness can lead to disruptions, prison violations, gang-related activities, and mental-health issues related to stress and depression (Wilkinson, p. 76). Another issue confronting the criminal justice system is the increasing number ofyouth being sentenced to pornographic prisons (Fields, 2005). any state within the U. S. has at least one statutory region that addresses the procedure of processing juveniles as adults in criminal court (Wilkinson, 1998). Prison officials also have other challenges. One challenge officials face includes fit the needs of state prisoners with symptoms of mania (43%) and majordepression (23%) according to the U. S. Department of Justice (2006, p. 1). A major problem is that inmates with mental health problems are unable to defend their situation so they remain in prison. Although prison officials face the issue of crowding, they are also seeking ways for inmates to break engaged in some type of activity that will keep them busy for the majority of their waking hours. When offenders engage in some type of prison program or activity that helps with their passing from prison to participation successful reintegration is possible.The theoretical framework of community service in the prison setting is the restorative justice imitate (Zehr, 2002). The restorative justice model advocates that offenders must demonstrate a desire or a state of grace gesture to pay back the public for the misdeed they committed in order to reconnect to their community. restorative justice is a philosophical framework for responding to annoyance that focuses on the injury resulting from execration and the actions needed to mend this harm. It foc uses on crime as an act against another individual or the community quite a than the state.It is a future-focused model that emphasizes problem solving instead of just deserts. (Carey, 1996, pp. 152-153) Although several(prenominal) justice models exist, the restorative justice model combines the best features of the traditional, liberal, and conservative theories. Restorative justice has brought an awareness of the limits and negative by-products of punishment. Beyond that, however, it has argued that punishment is not real accountability (Zehr, 2002, p. 16). By participating as community service volunteers, inmates bring to serve the community. The inmates actions demonstrate a desire togive back and a desire to assume responsibility for their actions. biotic community service programs have a restorative justice component that considers an offenders successful intonation from incarceration to community integration (U. S. Department of Justice, 2006). When considering the larg e number of offenders in jails and prisons nationally, the problem demands the publics immediate attention (U. S. Department of Justice, 2006). Providing offenders with productive activities through programs like community service sends a message to the public that its safety andsecurity is vital. It is also important to assist inmates in their transition back into the community by engaging them in an activity that keeps them committed to a society that has been offended by crime. Wilkinson (1998) reported that a large percent of exoffenders that participated in community service while in prison did not recidivate compared to those offenders that did not participate (p. 91). Although community service may have a positive impact on an inmates community re-entry, the type of community service program inmates do during theirincarceration may also improve their quality of prison life. Barak, Savorai, Mavashev, and Beni (2001) reported that dogs are becoming a valued therapeutic tool am ong health-care providers in clinical and non-traditional settings because of the calming affect dogs have on the physical and mental conditions of patients. Community service programs serve a useful role in managing inmate behavior and controlling the frequency and severity of inmate infractions within adult prisons. However, as prison crowding occurs, prison officials struggle to keep inmates busy by assigning them to productive tasks.Inmate idleness is something that most states are confronted with and while prison jobs such as mopping floors, kitchen duty, and making prison garments keep inmates occupied, these jobs are not enough to satisfy programming requirements to address the needs of rising populations. As inmate populations increase, stable prison systems could establish volatile environments endangering prison staff as well as the inmates the systems are charged with protecting. When there are a limited number of prison jobs to address the population challenges, offende rs find inappropriate ways to address their suffer idleness.The choices offenders make may lead to fights, staff assaults, riots, and other forms of aggression. References Barak, Y. , Savorai, O. , Mavashev, S. , & Beni, A (2001). tool assisted therapy for elderly schizophrenic patients A one year controlled trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9(4), 439-432. Fields, G. (2005, January). Congress prepares to tackle prisoner recidivism Lawmakers plan for bipartite measures after report offers advice for overhaul. Wall Street Journal, p. A4. JFA Institute. (2007, November). Unlocking America Why and how to put down Americasprison population. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from www. jfa-associates. com U. S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 6). Study finds more than half of all prison and jail inmates have mental health problems. Retrieved may 1, 2009, from http//www. ojp. usdoj. gov/newsroom/pressreleases/2006/BJS06064. htm McCuan, R. , Prins, S. , & Wasarhaley, N . (2007). Resources and challenges Corrections and mental health collaborations. August 2007, Corrections instantly Female Offenders Collins, T. (2006). Ohio Department of Rehabilitation & Correction Pieces of thepuzzle. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http//www. drc. ohio. gov/ Dawn, B. (2007). Managing the other inmate. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http//www. corrections. com Wilkinson, R. A. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisons using a restorative justice framework. Division of Research and groundbreaking Studies of the University of Cincinnati, College of Education. Haney, C. (2007). Testimony of Professor Craig Haney. Prison overcrowding Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. University of California, Santa Cruz.
Comp are the Frankenstein sassy with Kenneth Branaghs sprout version. Which is the better subject of a gothic textbook?Gothic texts en qualified audiences to be immersed in a world of the charming involving horror and romance. bloody shame Shelleys refreshing Frankenstein, and the make adaptation say by Kenneth Branagh, are both texts that portray the gothic genre. The have may share the very(prenominal) gothic elements as in the refreshing provided the impudent allows the reviewer to habituate their own imagination, thus bringing to spirit this genre. Through the comparison of supernatural events, heightened emotions and the atmosphere of mystery and suspense in both literary mediums of Frankenstein, the differences and similarities will be compared to find the better example of a gothic text.Most gothic texts have a series of supernatural events that help the progression of the story, yet Frankenstein has only one. This event organism the creation of the monster s ets the entire story in motion. When comparing the fresh and film adaptation, the monster was somewhat made in the same way. non-homogeneous deceased body parts were sewed together to form the variety of a man, and then the aim of an electric element brought the monster to life. However, in the new(a) the monsters birth was more archaic compared to the straightforwardly humorous, clownish behaviour of the monsters birth in the film as sea captain Frankenstein helped it to its feet. When the monster was born(p) the emotions and senses were much more small in the un workd, since it almost pictured the monster as being a child that explored and discovered such things as clothes and fireI found a fire which had been left by some ramble beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain. How strange, I thought, that the same ca make use of should produc e such opposite effects Monster (p.123)When this is compared with the film adaptation, once the monster was born somehow it already knew what clothes were use for and how to construct makeshift shoes out of cloth. When any child is born the most natural and uncomplicated thing to do is explore your surroundings. The novel Frankenstein, allows the reviewer to understand the childlike nature of the monster thus structure up emotions, which the film did not allow as it took away the childlike innocence when the monster was drawd.Heightened emotions are a gothic feature Mary Shelleys novel Frankenstein portrays makeer than the film adaptation. This is evident when the monster and Frankenstein were conversing in an trumpery cave. In this scene the tensions were very high between them. The way Shelley portrayed these emotions was by the use of eloquent verbalism. In the novel, the monster was well speak when addressing Frankenstein about his experiences of life, and also quite inte lligent. When compared to the film, in which the monster stuttered sounds, was not clear at all with many emotions being lost though clumsy wording, thereby portraying him as unintelligent. The build-up of emotions such as rage, disgust, sadness and refusal denotative by master in the ice cave when asked to create another(prenominal) like the monster had greater impact in the novelShall I create another like yourself, whose joint wickedness might scanty the world? Begone I have answered you you may torture me, but I will never consent. Victor (p.176)In the film, Victor simply agree without the degree of emotions expressed in the novel. With the use of Shelleys eloquent wording in the novel, heightened emotions are seen clearly compared to the film adaptation in which heightened emotions are rarely seen, thus not supporting a gothic text.Shelley utilise a very gothic and gloomy atmosphere throughout the novel to put an emphasis on the horror that comes when men try to make up Go d. As a novel can only use the readers imagination and descriptive wording by an authors command of literary skills, a film adaptation of a novel has what may seem to be an advantage in being able to portray a mysterious and suspenseful atmosphere through in effect(p) use music, lighting and visual elements to create a gothic atmosphere, something that is not necessarily available in a novel. Yet a novel can create music, lighting and visual elements through the effective use of words. One technique in which the film proved better than the novel was pathetic fallacy when the atmosphere changed with the mood of the character.An example of this was when the scenes changed from Geneva to Ingolstadt. In Geneva a sunny, happy and vibrant atmosphere was seen through Victors relationship with his family and beloved, Elizabeth. With the film also being able to use the effect of a symphony orchestra, it really brought this atmosphere of happiness together. In Ingolstadt the atmosphere was d ark and gloomy, and with the effect of the symphony orchestra it was obvious that Ingolstadt was a channelise where Victor would encounter horrible misfortunes. Compared to the film, the novel was at a discriminate by not having the ability to engage other senses besides the use of imagination. However, the descriptive wording Shelley used was sufficient enough to build a full picture of Victors misfortunesAs I stable pursued my journey to the northward, the snows thickened and the cold increased in a degree almost too severe to support. Victor (p.257)In the quote, Victor tracks down the monster in the Arctic Shelley uses this desolate location to depute the isolation of Victor and the monster creating a gothic atmosphere. Even though the film version had the ability to use music and visual elements to create a fuller atmosphere of mystery and suspense, the novels descriptive wording proves greater.The film adaptation may share the same gothic elements as in the novel however th e novel lets the reader use their own imagination thus bringing to life this genre. The novel allowed the reader to understand the childlike nature of the monster through the supernatural event, which the film did not. The use of Shelleys powerful wording expressed heightened emotions better than what was evident in the film adaptation. Even though the film had an advantage in creating an atmosphere of mystery and suspense through the use of creative cinematography, Shelleys descriptive wording was sufficient enough to create a remote better gothic atmosphere, thus being the better example of a gothic text.
Friday, February 22, 2019
Feather made the in effect(p) choice, he should not have stayed with Maddy. display Sonya Hartnetts The Ghosts Child reveals the mystifying story of Matildas remarkable pilgrimage up the mountain of life. as yet though the acquittance away of Feather distracted Maddy emotionally, the overall moment significantly boosted her emotional force-out and confidence. Feather warmthd Maddy so much, provided he knew he couldnt change, so he had to do what was best for Maddy in order for her to be happy. The spill of Feather as well as the Fay encouraged Maddy to embark on many an(prenominal) new adventures.At the end of Matildas glorious journey of life, she was, truly, happy. BP1 All Feather wanted was for Maddy to be happy, and the only way that was doable was to free her from herself by leaving her and letting her go. Maddy had thought that because of all the times he crept off to the beach, and to be with just the water and sand, that Feather didnt tutorship some her, onl y it was not her, it was that Maddy was less important than this strange, mysterious call thing. Feather knew he couldnt change his lifestyle to fuck with Maddy, and if he didnt, he would continue to hurt her inside.The only way to retaliate them both was to leave. It was not the fact that Feather could not change for Maddy, but that he could not change enough for Maddy. Feather is willing to do anything for Maddy to make her happy. Even when he says that it makes no difference to him, it really does, and he knows that if he does ladder to the desert with Maddy, they wont be able to live happily together because of Feathers urge to get ski binding to his old life. Maddy was holding Feather back by making him more than civilized and ever-changing him to be the opposite of the person she fell in love with.After living with Feather for quite a while, Maddy still called him Feather, but it was easy to forget why because of the new clothes she made him go and his hair was washed and looked smart, and he had just missed the strange smoking shimmer that swam from him like the sun reflecting off a gold fish, in clear blue water. This shows that Feather go away Maddy, not only to serve up her be happy, but also to let himself be happy. BP2 When Feather left Maddy, he freed her from the windowless box inside her head, and enabled her to live life without worrying about love or oss, and as a result Maddy proceeded to have many great experiences that heavily influenced her life. The loss of Feather strived Maddy to actually do something with her life, sooner than dwelling on all of the unspeakable things that have happened. Whether Feather meant to or not, he enabled Maddy to fight for what she wanted, and actually do the things she wanted to do right now. The island of stillness gave Maddy many new experiences and helped her learn a lot from them. The well-nigh vital thing that Maddy learns on the island is that love is not the strongest or most(prenomina l) important thing in the world.She accepted the fact that she had disordered the Fay, and now was losing Feather. After learning this she can properly move on with her life and leave Feather and all their memories together in the past. Maddy going to help with the war was a very significant experience as it gave her the epiphany that she wanted to be an eye doctor for the remainder of her career. She was inspired by the fact that the blind injured men in the war had lost the biggest thing of all, they had lost the sight of beautiful things.This tells us that one bad experience, can often lead to several good life changing experiences BP3 In the end, all of Matildas great journeys and adventures love and loss, finally enabled her to accept that the loss of Feather did help her learn to be happy. Love can be brutal and leave you injured, but eventually we learn that we can move past this and learn from our experiences to help us become wiser more knowledgeable. finished all the ama zing good times, and the ever-lasting bad times, all Matildas memories made up an overall happy life.After the island of stillness and the war, Maddy was living her perfect life, a clientele she wanted to do and nothing to worry about. It is strange to think of the outcome if she was still living with Feather, and if she would be doing what she was doing now. In the end, all alone Matilda was rest on the mountain top, and looking back along the path shed walked and she was satisfied with what she see. Feather leaving, not only hurt Maddy, but more importantly it taught her valuable lessons in life and gave her many amazing experiences.Sonya Hartnett was severe to explain that love can give you as much pain as it does happiness and to really experience great love, you must commencement ceremony experience the bad times as well as the good. Even if something bad does happen and you end up losing the one thing you love most, you must accept the fact that it has happened and that you cannot change it, and use it as a learning experience. No matter what happens, you have to learn to move on and enjoy all of the good things in life. As Matildas eyes saw the last things they would ever see, on her face were the remnants of a smile.
Self-Realization through Education Over the past 32 historic period of my look, I have been both directly and indirectly impacted by numerous amicable originations. Without question, learning has been the most influential by creating a positive change in my life. There are many emoluments to move an education. First, embarking on a rewarding career path has its own rewards such as a generous salary and sociable prestige. In addition, an individual(a)s relationships inwardly the institutions of family and marriage are also modify by the presence of an ameliorate head of household.Lastly, the impact of a good education on mental well-being is tremendous since most people smack a sense impression of accomplishment after earning a college degree. Above all, I recollect that education, as a social institution, has helped to shape my mental attitudes towards community as well as mold my sense of identity. Beforehand, I would interchangeable to define the term social insti tution followed by my own interpretation. consort to Merriam-Websters dictionary, an institution is defined as a significant practice, relationship, or organization in a orderliness or culture (Institution, 2010).I shade that social institutions in particular are trunks whichrequire social club to sorting social groups these social groups work towardstheir collective goal of attaining desired statusesand roles inside said society. Simply put, a social institution is a system that can be used to attain certain social goals that are predefined by its respective social group, governed by a set of social norms. By adhering to social norms of academia, I have been able to earn an fellers degree which aided me in securing a new career.By depending on the institution of education, I have been able to meet one of my social goals and achieve Federal employment status. Social institutions are necessary components within our society in order to maintain and provide individual stableness based on institutional dependence. Social institutions such as rescue and education can directly correlate with one another. Common sense in todays society tells us that the more educated a person is, the greater the likelihood that person will gather high salaried employment.This so-called common sense also entails that a measure of normative isomorphism, or organizational standard, exists in the form of a college degree in order to establish a common crush practice (Carter & Clegg, 2007, para 3). Individuals who do not possess the established minimum qualifications for employment are unlikely candidates due to an accepted social sensing that said individuals lack the desired aptitude.In effect, being financially secure and having asuccessful career that requires a college degree grants a sense of perceptual constancy in the household. Family is considered to be another social institution and is affected by other social institutions, specifically economy and education. The i nvolvement of the two latter(prenominal) social institutions has a great impact on the quality of life and stability of any given household. Herbert Spencer referred to institutions by using the analogy of society as if it were an organism (Henning, 2007, para 3).Basically, institutions are compared to the organs of the body since they to a fault properly function only with effective interdependence. With respect to family, I believe that children are likely to grow up to incur responsible members of society if they are raised in a household with educated parents. quest higher learning only strengthens the institution of family through both discernible and intangible benefits. Stability in the household, both emotional and financial, is directly affected by the level of education held by the working person.Indeed, family members traditionally benefit from the financial rewards which are bestowed upon the college-educated provider within the household. However, there are a multit ude of intangible benefits conferred upon graduation from a college or university. Social prestige, self-confidence, fourth dimension management skills, and the ability to think critically are the most illustrious benefits. Abraham Maslow, a noted psychologist and theorist, developed a theory on world motivation that is widely known as a hierarchy of needs.After a person meets their esteem needs, he or she will seek to foregather their potential through a process of self-actualization (Myers, 2010, pp 446-47, 564-65). Throughout this process, I line up that education is a key component towards self-actualization. In conclusion, by utilizing the institution of education, I am learning valuable life skills necessary to become a productive and successful member of society, as well as realize my true potential. References Carter, C. & Clegg, S. 2007). New institutional theory. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. G. Ritzer (Ed. ). Retrieved from http//www. blackwellreference. c om Henning, C. (2007). Institution. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. G. Ritzer (Ed. ). Retrieved from http//www. blackwellreference. com Institution. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved June 13, 2010 from http//www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/institution Myers, D. G. (2010). Psychology (9th ed. ). New York, NY Worth.